Born from the Crown of the Head ［頂生王・曼陀多王］ ( Mūrdhagata or Māndhātri; Chōshō-ō or Mandata-ō): A king who appears in many sutras, some of which describe him as a previous incarnation of Shakyamuni Buddha. Descriptions of him differ slightly among sutras. Born from the top of King Uposatha’s head, he ruled Jambudvīpa, one of the four continents surrounding Mount Sumeru, by justice rather than force and brought ease and comfort to the people. He went on to rule the other three continents and later ascended to the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods on the summit of Mount Sumeru. He was welcomed there by Shakra, the lord of this heaven, who seated him by his side in the Hall of the Good Law. He was outstanding in appearance, power, and authority, no less so than the lord Shakra. He conceived a desire to drive Shakra from the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods, however, and become its ruler. As a result, he eventually fell to the ground of Jambudvīpa. He became gravely ill, and when his life came to an end, he told his retainers that, though he ruled the four continents and obtained all kinds of pleasures, these things failed to satisfy him.