Gyōnen ［凝然］ (1240–1321): A priest of the Flower Garland (Kegon) school in Japan. In 1257 he became a disciple of Enshō, a priest of the Kaidan-in hall of Tōdai-ji temple in Nara. Under Enshō and others, he studied the doctrines of the Precepts (Ritsu), Tendai, True Word (Shingon), Flower Garland, Dharma Characteristics (Hossō), Three Treatises (Sanron), Pure Land (Jōdo), Zen, and other schools, becoming well versed in a wide range of Buddhist doctrines. He lectured on the Flower Garland and Precepts teachings. He wrote The Essentials of the Eight Schools and A History of the Transmission and Propagation of Buddhism in Three Countries, a work on the history of Buddhism in India, China, and Japan. His works amount to more than 160 in more than 1,000 volumes.