Namu Amida Butsu ［南無阿弥陀仏］: “Homage to Amida Buddha” or “I take refuge in Amida Buddha.” Also known as the Nembutsu. The phrase invoked by followers of the Pure Land school in Japan. The Pure Land school asserts that one can attain rebirth in the Pure Land of Amida Buddha by simply chanting this phrase. This practice was firmly established by Shan-tao (613–681), a Chinese patriarch of the school, who equated contemplation on Amida Buddha with the chanting of that Buddha’s name. In Japan, Hōnen (1133–1212), who was revered by his followers as Shan-tao reborn, wrote The Nembutsu Chosen above All, thereby refuting all practices other than the Nembutsu, and spread the single practice of chanting the name of Amida Buddha. See also Nembutsu.