nine divisions of the scriptures ［九分経］ ( kubun-kyō): Also, nine divisions of the sutras or nine divisions of the teachings. A classification of Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings according to style and content, of which there are four different traditions. According to one tradition, the nine divisions of the teachings are (1) sūtra, or teachings in prose style; (2) geya, restatements of sūtra in verse; (3) vyākarana, the Buddha’s predictions of the future enlightenment of his disciples; (4) gāthā, teachings set forth by the Buddha in verse; (5) udāna, teachings that the Buddha preaches spontaneously without request or query from his disciples; (6) itivrittaka, discourses beginning with the words “This is what the World-Honored One said”; (7) jātaka, stories of the Buddha’s previous lives; (8) vaipulya, expansion of doctrine; and (9) adbhutadharma, descriptions of marvelous events that concern the Buddha or his disciples. According to another tradition, nidāna replaces jātaka; in a third tradition, nidāna replaces udāna; and in a fourth tradition, nidāna, avadāna, and upadesha replace vyākarana, udāna, and vaipulya. Nidāna means descriptions of the purpose, cause, and occasion on which teachings and rules of monastic discipline are propounded. Avadāna refers to tales of the previous lives of persons other than the Buddha, and upadesha to discourses on the Buddha’s teachings. It is generally believed that the nine divisions of the teachings developed into the concept of twelve divisions of the teachings. See also twelve divisions of the scriptures.