Shan-wu-wei ［善無畏］ (637–735) (PY Shanwuwei; Shubhakara-simha; Zemmui): The Indian monk who first introduced Esoteric Buddhism to China. Shan-wu-wei is his Chinese name. Born a prince in Udyāna (Udra according to another account) in India, he became king at age thirteen. He abdicated the throne, however, in favor of a jealous elder brother and entered the Buddhist Order. He studied Esoteric Buddhism under Dharmagupta at Nālandā Monastery. In 716 he went to China and was welcomed by Emperor Hsüan-tsung of the T’ang dynasty, who named him teacher of the nation. There Shan-wu-wei translated a number of esoteric scriptures, including the Mahāvairochana and Susiddhikara sutras.