six non-Buddhist teachers ［六師外道］ ( rokushi-gedō): Also, six teachers of the non-Buddhist doctrines. Influential thinkers in India during Shakyamuni’s time who openly broke with old Vedic tradition and challenged Brahman authority in the Indian social order. Their names are usually listed in Pali, rather than Sanskrit. They are as follows: (1) Pūrana Kassapa ( Pūrana Kāshyapa), who denied the existence of causality, rejecting the idea that one’s good or bad deeds yield corresponding gain or loss. Therefore he rejected all concepts of morality. (2) Makkhali Gosāla (Maskarin Goshālin or Maskarin Goshālīputra), who asserted that all events are predetermined by fate, and that no amount of devotional effort or religious practice can alter them. He therefore advised people to resign themselves to the process of samsāra, or transmigration. (3) Sanjaya Belatthiputta (Samjayin Vairatīputra), a skeptic who gave no definite answers to metaphysical questions. For example, when asked whether life continues after death, he is said to have replied that it might and yet again it might not, denying the possibility of certain knowledge in such areas. (4) Ajita Kesakambala (Ajita Keshakambala or Ajita Keshakambalin), who maintained a simple materialism according to which all things in the universe are formed of earth, water, fire, and wind. Since the world is composed of these elements alone, he said, life ends when the body dies, and it is therefore of no consequence whether one does evil or good in this life. For this reason, Ajita encouraged hedonism. He is regarded as the forerunner of the Lokayata school. (5) Pakudha Kacchāyana (Kakuda Kātyāyana), who asserted that human beings are composed of seven unchangeable elements: earth, water, fire, wind, suffering, pleasure, and soul. He argued that one could not really kill another with a sword, since it would simply cut through the space between those elements composing the person. (6) Nigantha Nātaputta (Nirgrantha Jnātiputra), founder of Jainism, who sought liberation through rigorous asceticism and absolutely forbade the killing of any living being.