Rāhula Shakyamuni’s son. One of the Buddha’s ten major disciples, respected as the foremost in inconspicuous practice.
Rājagriha The capital of the kingdom of Magadha in ancient India. It was one of the largest cities in India in Shakyamuni’s time and the center of new cultural and philosophical activities. King Bimbisāra and his son Ajātashatru lived in this capital, where Shakyamuni often visited and preached. Rājagriha and its environs were also the location of many important Buddhist sites such as the Cave of the Seven Leaves where the First Buddhist Council was held, Eagle Peak, and Bamboo Grove Monastery. Rājagriha means the royal palace.
realization of the non-birth and non-extinction of all phenomena The stage where one realizes the truth that no things or phenomena are either born or die. More specifically, this enlightenment signifies the state where one perceives the non-birth and non-extinction of the phenomenal world and thereby attains a calm state of mind.
Realization of Virtue A monk who appears in the Nirvana Sutra. When the correct teaching of Buddhism was about to perish, he strove to protect the teaching and was attacked by many evil monks and their followers. The king Possessor of Virtue fought for his defense and died in the battle. It is said that because of their devotion to Buddhism, the king Possessor of Virtue was reborn as Shakyamuni Buddha and the monk Realization of Virtue as Kāshyapa Buddha.
Record of the Western Regions, The An account by Hsüan-tsang, recording his travels through Central Asia and India between 629 and 645 in search of Buddhist scriptures. This book describes the culture, legends, history, Buddhism, and politics of 138 states.
Record of Wonders in the Book of Chou, The A Chinese work often cited for the information it contained pertaining to Buddhist events, such as the dates of Shakyamuni’s birth and death. It is no longer extant, but quotations from it are found in various Buddhist sources. These place Shakyamuni Buddha’s birth in the twenty-fourth year of the reign of King Chao (1029 b.c.e.) of China’s Chou dynasty, and his death in the fifty-second year of the reign of King Mu (949 b.c.e.) of the same dynasty. In China and Japan, this account was traditionally adopted. It is generally agreed that this work was written before the early sixth century c.e.
Record of the Historian A history written by Ssu-ma Ch’ien of the Former Han dynasty, the first great Chinese historian. This work, which consists of one hundred and thirty volumes, was completed in c. 91 b.c.e. It depicts the history from Huang Ti (Yellow Emperor) through Emperor Wu of the Former Han dynasty. This work was highly esteemed by the later historians in China as a model of historical records. Its original, or Chinese, title is Shih chi.
regent In Nichiren Daishonin’s writings, “regent” ordinarily refers to the political leader of the Kamakura shogunate. In the early Kamakura period, the official leader of the shogunate was a military general, or shogun, but after the death of Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun, this position had become nominal and ceremonial. Actual power and leadership were transferred to the shogun’s regent. The regent possessed both political and military powers and administered the affairs of state. From the inception of the office of regent in 1205, through the end of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, the regency was held by leaders of the Hōjō clan. See also Appendix L.
Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra A sutra that explains the repaying of moral obligations from a Mahayana Buddhist standpoint. Shakyamuni Buddha was attacked by Brahmans as unfilial for leaving his parents and entering religious life. The Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra refutes this criticism with the argument that, by renouncing the world and awakening to the truth that leads all people to Buddhahood, one can truly repay all one’s obligations to others.
replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle Also, “replacing the three vehicles with the one vehicle,” “opening the three vehicles and revealing the one vehicle,” and “the opening of the three vehicles and the revealing of the one vehicle.” A concept revealed in the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra, where Shakyamuni states that the three vehicles are not ends in themselves, as he had taught in the provisional sutras, but expedient means by which he leads people to the one vehicle of Buddhahood.
Retired Emperor of Oki (1180–1239) The Retired Emperor Gotoba. In 1221, three years after his retirement, he attempted to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate. However, the leader of the shogunate, the regent Hōjō Yoshitoki, emerged victorious. As a result, Gotoba was exiled to the island of Oki, hence the designation the Retired Emperor of Oki. This incident, called the Jōkyū Disturbance, in effect destroyed the political power of the imperial house and enabled the shogunate to consolidate its influence.
reverse relation Also, reverse relationship or poison-drum relationship. A bond formed with the Lotus Sutra by opposing or slandering it. That is, even though one should fall into hell for slandering the Lotus Sutra, because of the reverse relationship formed with the sutra, one will eventually attain Buddhahood.
reward body One of the three bodies—the Dharma body, reward body, and manifested body. The reward body is a body obtained as the reward of completing bodhisattva practice. It was thought that each Buddha possesses one or another of the three bodies. Buddhas were classified according to which of these bodies they were said to possess. For example, the Buddhas Amida and Medicine Master are placed in the category of Buddhas of the reward body. Early forms of the theory of the three bodies held that each Buddha possessed one or another of the three bodies. However, later forms described the three bodies as all being possessed by a single Buddha; in this sense the three bodies can be regarded as three properties of a single Buddha.
ri (Jpn) A unit of linear measurement. The exact definition of ri (Chin li) differed in China and Japan, and from era to era. In Japan at different times it equaled about 450, 545, or 655 meters. In China it equaled about 250, 400, or 530 meters.
Rida An elder brother of Aniruddha in a previous lifetime, when Aniruddha was known by the name of Arida. The story appears in the Storehouse of Various Treasures Sutra and elsewhere. The Sanskrit names for Rida and Arida are unknown.
river of three crossings A river that the dead are said to cross after their death. It has three points of crossing—a bridge, a ford, and a spot where there is only deep, serpent-infested water. Where one crosses depends on the weight of the offenses that one committed while alive.
Rōben (689–773) The second patriarch of the Japanese Flower Garland school and the first chief priest of Tōdai-ji temple. Under the patronage of Emperor Shōmu, he devoted himself to the founding of Tōdai-ji, and in 752 he was appointed its first chief priest.
Root of Joy According to the Non-substantiality of All Phenomena Sutra, a monk who lived in the latter age after the passing of the Buddha Lion Sound King. He did not value ascetic practices but taught only the doctrine of the true aspect of all phenomena and, because of this, was insulted by the monk Superior Intent. Root of Joy upheld his beliefs and attained Buddhahood, while Superior Intent is said to have fallen into hell.
root teaching and branch teachings A classification concerning the superiority of the Flower Garland Sutra over the other sutras including the Lotus Sutra. The Flower Garland school asserts that the Flower Garland Sutra represents the root teaching, and the Lotus and other sutras, the branch teachings.
ryō (Jpn) A unit of weight understood to be equivalent to 37.5 grams. However, the exact weight of one ryō (Chin liang) differed in China and Japan and varied according to the historical period.
Ryōkan (1217–1303) Also known as Ninshō. A priest of the True Word Precepts school who was a contemporary of Nichiren Daishonin. He received the precepts from Eizon, who was revered as a restorer of the Precepts school in Japan. In 1261 Ryōkan went to Kamakura, where he was named chief priest of Kōsen-ji, a temple founded by a Hōjō regent. Later he became chief priest of Gokuraku-ji, founded by Hōjō Shigetoki. During the drought of 1271, he vied with Nichiren Daishonin in praying for rain but failed. After that he contrived to have accusations brought against the Daishonin.
Ryūzō See Ryūzō-bō.
Ryūzō-bō (n.d.) Also, Ryūzō. A priest of the Tendai school. He was expelled from Enryaku-ji temple on Mount Hiei for having eaten human flesh but later won the patronage of Ryōkan in Kamakura. Ryūzō-bō was defeated at the Kuwagayatsu Debate in 1277 by one of Nichiren Daishonin’s disciples.