Calm and Bright, Mount Another name for Mount Sumeru. The Sanskrit name Sumeru was translated into Chinese as “Calm and Bright” and “Wonderful Bright.”
cause-awakened ones See pratyekabuddha.
Ceremony in the Air One of the three assemblies described in the Lotus Sutra, in which the entire gathering of listeners is suspended in space above the sahā world. The account of the ceremony extends from the “Treasure Tower” (eleventh) chapter to the “Entrustment” (twenty-second) chapter of the sutra. At its heart is the revelation of the Buddha’s original enlightenment in the remote past and the transfer of the essence of the sutra to the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.
ceremony of anointment Also, anointment ceremony. A ceremony commonly performed in Esoteric Buddhism to invest a practitioner with a certain religious status. The ceremony is said to derive from the practice of pouring water on the heads of rulers in ancient India upon their ascending the throne. Broadly speaking, there are three kinds of esoteric anointment ceremonies: those designed to establish a relationship between the individual and the Buddha, those to confer the status of practitioner of the esoteric teaching, and those to invest someone with the rank of āchārya, qualifying that person to teach the esoteric doctrine.
Chandaka A servant of Shakyamuni before he renounced secular life. The night Shakyamuni left the palace to seek the way, Chandaka accompanied him, holding his horse, Kanthaka, by the bridle. After Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, Chandaka became his disciple. Being arrogant, he was unable to get along with the other monks. It is said, however, that after the Buddha’s passing he followed Ānanda and attained the state of arhat.
chandāla (Skt) The untouchable class, below the lowest of the four classes in ancient India. People in this class handled corpses, butchered animals, and carried out other tasks connected with death or the killing of living things. Since Nichiren Daishonin was born to a family of fishermen, he declared himself to be a member of the chandāla.
Chandrakīrti Also known as Chandrayashas. A minister who served King Ajātashatru. When the king was suffering from virulent sores all over his body, his six ministers exhorted him to consult the six non-Buddhist teachers. Chandrakīrti was one of the ministers, who urged the king to see Pūrana, one of the six non-Buddhist teachers.
Chang-an (561–632) T’ien-t’ai’s disciple and successor. He recorded T’ien-t’ai’s lectures and later compiled them as The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra, The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra, and Great Concentration and Insight. His own works include The Annotations on the Nirvana Sutra and The Profound Meaning of the Nirvana Sutra.
Chang Chieh (n.d.) A scholar of the Later Han dynasty in China. According to The History of the Later Han Dynasty, Chang Chieh excelled in the occult arts of Taoism and caused a thick fog to appear that extended over five Chinese ri (about 2 km), thus concealing himself.
Chang Liang (d. 168 b.c.e.) A statesman and strategist who assisted Liu Pang, who became Emperor Kao-tsu, in the overthrow of the Ch’in and the establishment of the Former Han dynasty of China.
Chao Kao (d. 207 b.c.e.) A minister to the First Emperor of the Ch’in dynasty in China. When the emperor died of an illness, the eunuch official Chao Kao forged an edict placing the emperor’s youngest son on the throne. He brought about the death of the emperor’s eldest son, as well as that of many generals and high ministers and, eventually, the second emperor. Manipulating power in this way, he attempted to control the throne but was finally killed by the third ruler, the First Emperor’s grandson.
Ch’eng-kuan (738–839) Also called the Teacher of the Nation Ch’ing-liang. The fourth patriarch of the Flower Garland school in China.
Chen-yüan era catalog An index of 2,417 Chinese Buddhist texts compiled by Yüan-chao in 800, the sixteenth year of the Chen-yüan era.
Chia-hsiang See Chi-tsang.
Chieh The last ruler of the Hsia dynasty of China. King Chieh abandoned himself to a dissolute life and caused his people great distress with his tyranny and extravagance. Thus he brought about the downfall of his dynasty. Together with King Chou of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, he is regarded as the epitome of a tyrant.
Chien-chen See Ganjin.
Chih-che An honorific Chinese title meaning “person of wisdom.” The Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai was also called the Great Teacher Chih-che and the Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai Chih-che.
Chih-i See T’ien-t’ai.
Chihō (n.d.) (Kor Chipong) A priest of the Dharma Characteristics school. Born in Silla, a state on the Korean Peninsula, he went to Japan while young. In 703, together with the Japanese priests Chiran and Chiyū, he traveled to China and studied the Dharma Characteristics doctrine under Chih-chou. Returning to Japan, he settled at Gangō-ji temple and taught the Consciousness-Only doctrine. This is considered the third transmission of the Dharma Characteristics teachings to Japan.
Chih-tsang (458–522) A priest of the Northern and Southern Dynasties period in China. He was revered by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty and wrote a number of treatises and commentaries at K’ai-shan-ssu temple. Chih-tsang is considered one of the three great teachers of the Liang dynasty, together with Fa-yün and Seng-min.
Chih-yen (602–668) The second patriarch of the Chinese Flower Garland school.
ch’i-lin (Chin) An imaginary beast appearing in ancient Chinese legend. It was thought to resemble a fiery horse and believed to herald the advent of a sage.
Chinchā Also, Chinchāmānavikā. A woman who slandered Shakyamuni by tying a pot to her belly under her robe and publicly declaring that she was pregnant by him. According to the Commitment of Previous Deeds Sutra, her falsehood was exposed by the god Shakra, who assumed the form of a rat and gnawed through the string holding the pot in place. The slander of Chinchā is regarded as one of the nine great ordeals that Shakyamuni experienced.
Ching-ying See Hui-yüan.
Chin-kang-chih (671–741) The Chinese name of Vajrabodhi, an Indian scholar of the esoteric teachings. He studied the esoteric teachings as a disciple of Nāgabodhi before journeying to China in 720, where he won the support of Emperor Hsüan-tsung. He translated several texts into Chinese and was the teacher of Pu-k’ung.
Ch’in-tsung (1100–1161) The ninth and last emperor of China’s Northern Sung dynasty. He assumed the throne in 1125, when his father, Hui-tsung (r. 1100–1125), abdicated on the threat of invasion by the Jurchen people of the Chin Dynasty to the north. In 1126 the Jurchen attacked, taking the Sung capital of K’ai-feng. Ch’in-tsung was captured and exiled north to Manchuria, where he remained a prisoner until his death.
Chinzei An ancient name for Kyushu, Japan’s southernmost major island.
Chishō (814–891) Also known as Enchin or the Great Teacher Chishō. The fifth chief priest of Enryaku-ji, the head temple of the Tendai school on Mount Hiei. In 853 he went to T’ang China where he studied the T’ien-t’ai and esoteric doctrines. After his return, he mixed esoteric doctrines with those of the Tendai school. He also erected a hall at Onjō-ji temple for performing the esoteric ceremony of anointment.
Chi-tsang (549–623) Also called Chia-hsiang. A priest of the Three Treatises school in China, sometimes regarded as the first patriarch of that school.
chō (Jpn) A unit of area and a unit of linear measurement as well. As a unit of area, a chō measured about 9,920 square meters. A chō as a linear measure is equal to about 110 meters. Its exact size varied somewhat from era to era.
Chou, King The last ruler of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, which ended in the eleventh century b.c.e. Infamous as an oppressive ruler, he is regarded together with King Chieh of the Hsia dynasty as the epitome of a tyrant. Prone to drunkenness and debauchery, he was encouraged in his evildoing by his favorite concubine, Ta Chi. Because of his corruption and cruelty, the feudal lords and people of the kingdom eventually turned against him. He was finally defeated by King Wu of the Chou dynasty.
Chūdapanthaka The younger of two brothers who were followers of Shakyamuni Buddha. The elder brother’s name was Mahāpanthaka, and he was clever, but the younger sibling was dull-witted. Accounts vary considerably, and according to one, both brothers were dull. Another source identifies Chūda as the elder brother, and Panthaka as the younger brother. Chūdapanthaka was so slow-witted that in three years he was unable to learn even a single verse of the Buddhist teachings, despite having been instructed by five hundred arhats. Taking pity on him, the Buddha gave him a verse to learn and explained its meaning. Chūdapanthaka thereby attained an awakening and reached the state of arhat.
Chu Fa-lan (n.d.) An Indian monk traditionally believed to have first introduced Buddhism to China together with Kāshyapa Mātanga. Chu Fa-lan is his Chinese name; his Indian name is unknown. It is said that in c.e. 67 they traveled from India to Lo-yang in China at the request of Emperor Ming of the Later Han dynasty.
Chunda A blacksmith in Pāva Village who was deeply moved by Shakyamuni’s preaching and offered the Buddha the last meal he ate before entering nirvana.
Ch’ung-hua The given name of Emperor Shun, the fifth of the legendary sage rulers of China known as the Five Emperors.
Chu Tao-sheng (d. 434) Also called Tao-sheng. A Chinese priest and disciple of Kumārajīva who insisted, on the basis of his study of Fa-hsien’s Chinese version of the Nirvana Sutra, that according to the sutra even an icchantika, a person of incorrigible disbelief, can attain Buddhahood. For this, he was banished from the community of priests to a mountain in Su-chou. Later, when the Nirvana Sutra was translated by Dharmaraksha into Chinese, Tao-sheng’s assertion was verified.
Clarification of the Schools Based on T’ien-t’ai’s Doctrine, A A work that Dengyō wrote in 813. It shows how Buddhist scholars in China based their views on T’ien-t’ai’s doctrines and, on this basis, refutes the errors of the True Word, Flower Garland, Three Treatises, Dharma Characteristics, and other schools.
Classic of Filial Piety, The (Chin Hsiao-ching) A work purportedly written by Tseng Tzu, a disciple of Confucius. Taking the form of a dialogue between Tseng Tzu and the master, it stresses filial piety as the cardinal virtue and the source of all instruction. It enjoyed special popularity under the Han-dynasty emperors (202 b.c.e.–c.e. 220).
Clear and Cool, Mount According to the Flower Garland Sutra, the abode of Manjushrī. “Clear and Cool” is the translation of the Chinese words “ch’ing-liang.” It later came to be associated with Mount Ch’ing-liang, also known as Mount Wu-t’ai, in China.
Cloud Thunder Sound King (1) The Buddha who appears in the “Wonderful Sound” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. This chapter says that in the remote past Bodhisattva Wonderful Sound served the Buddha Cloud Thunder Sound King. (2) Another name for the Buddha Cloud Thunder Sound Constellation King Flower Wisdom, the Buddha who appears in the “King Wonderful Adornment” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. According to this chapter, he instructed King Wonderful Adornment, who was the father of Pure Storehouse and Pure Eye. One view regards the above-mentioned Buddhas as identical.
cold-suffering bird A legendary bird said to live in the Snow Mountains. This bird, tortured during the night by the cold, determines to build a nest in the morning. When day breaks, however, it instead sleeps away the hours in the warm sunlight and forgets about building its nest. Thus, when night falls, the bird must suffer again.
Collection of Orally Transmitted Teachings, A A two-volume work by Chishō (814–891), the fifth chief priest of Enryaku-ji temple on Mount Hiei, the headquarters of the Japanese Tendai school. It records the oral teachings he received during his stay in China from Liang-hsü of Ch’an-lin-ssu temple on Mount T’ien-t’ai. The Temple (Jpn Jimon) school, a branch of the Tendai school, reveres this work as a foundational scripture.
combining, excluding, corresponding, and including Categories describing the various provisional sutras and used to differentiate between them and the Lotus Sutra. These four terms are derived from the relationship between the four teachings of doctrine and the first four of the five periods. The four teachings of doctrine are T’ien-t’ai’s classification of Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings according to their contents. They are the Tripitaka teaching, the connecting teaching, the specific teaching, and the perfect teaching. The five periods are T’ien-t’ai’s classification of Shakyamuni’s teachings according to the order in which he believed they were expounded. They are the Flower Garland period, the Āgama period, the Correct and Equal period, the Wisdom period, and the Lotus and Nirvana period. During the Flower Garland period, the specific teaching was combined with the perfect teaching. During the Āgama period, only the Tripitaka, or Hinayana, teachings were expounded, and the connecting, specific, and perfect teachings were excluded. During the Correct and Equal period, all four teachings were taught in a manner corresponding to the people’s capacity, while during the Wisdom period the connecting and specific teachings were included in the perfect teaching. In contrast to the provisional doctrines preached during these four periods, which either excluded the perfect teaching or mixed it with other teachings, the Lotus Sutra contains only the perfect teaching. Hence it is called the pure perfect teaching.
comparative myō One of two perspectives from which T’ien-t’ai, in The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra, interprets the word myō (wonderful) of the title Myoho-renge-kyo, or Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law. The comparative myō means that the Lotus Sutra is wonderful because it is superior when compared with all other teachings. The other perspective, represented by the contrasting term “absolute myō,” means that the Lotus Sutra encompasses and integrates all other teachings; no teaching exists outside it, and thus none can be compared with or called superior or inferior to it.
Comparison of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, A A work by Kōbō in which he compares the esoteric teachings with the exoteric teachings and asserts that the former are superior to the latter. This work also outlines the ten stages of the mind. See also ten stages of the mind.
concise replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle A reference to the portion of the Lotus Sutra that reveals the principle of replacing the three vehicles with the one vehicle—the principle that the three vehicles (the teachings addressed to voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas) are not ends in themselves but expedient means by which the Buddha leads people to the one vehicle of Buddhahood. The concise replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle refers to the first part of the “Expedient Means” (second) chapter through the end of the fifth verse section of that chapter, which concludes with Shāriputra’s words, “When we hear this Law we will be filled with great joy.” This part centers on “the true aspect of all phenomena,” that is, the ten factors of life. The term is used in contrast with the expanded replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle, which refers to Shakyamuni’s further elaboration on this idea, which lasts from the latter half of the “Expedient Means” chapter through the end of the “Prophecies” (ninth) chapter.
Confucius (551–-479 b.c.e.) Ancient Chinese teacher, philosopher, and political theorist. Born to a poor yet noble family in an age of political and social turmoil, he is said to have held menial jobs while studying and mastering various disciplines, including poetry and history. This led him to a distinguished career as a teacher at a young age. Confucius viewed education and self-improvement as the key to personal fulfillment and wise governance, and advocated the improvement and harmony of social institutions through cultivating in the individual traditional values and virtue. He became a minister of the state of Lu, but failed to influence the policies and behavior of the powerful families. Embarking on a tour of neighboring states that extended over a period of more than ten years, he gathered a substantial following, but again failed to see his policies implemented. Returning to his homeland, he spent his remaining years teaching and writing. His teachings, which emphasize self-improvement and virtuous conduct, and the school of thought they engendered have for millennia exerted a great influence on the philosophy, culture, and government of China, Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan.
connecting teaching One of the four teachings of doctrine, a classification of Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings set forth by T’ien-t’ai. The connecting teaching corresponds to introductory Mahayana, and is called so because it forms a link between the Tripitaka teaching and the specific teaching. Like the Tripitaka teaching, the connecting teaching is also concerned with casting off attachment to the threefold world. However, the teachings of this category deny the view of the Tripitaka teaching that all things when analyzed prove to be without substance, and instead set forth the view that all things are essentially without substance, because they arise and disappear only by virtue of dependent origination. These teachings are directed primarily to bodhisattvas and secondarily to persons of the two vehicles.
Constellation King Flower A bodhisattva who appears in the “Medicine King” chapter of the Lotus Sutra and assumes the role of questioner to the Buddha. In this chapter Shakyamuni Buddha instructs him to protect the sutra with his transcendental power, because it provides good medicine for the ills of the people of the world.
Contemplation on the Mind-Ground Sutra A sutra that explains that the states of the Buddha, bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, arhat, and voice-hearer all originate from the minds of ordinary people. Thus it compares the mind to the ground, which produces grain. The sutra also defines the four debts of gratitude—those owed to one’s parents, to all living beings, to one’s sovereign, and to the three treasures—and extols the blessing of observing the mind.
continual propagation to the fiftieth person A principle described in the “Benefits of Responding with Joy” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Suppose, the text says, that after Shakyamuni Buddha’s passing a person were to hear the Lotus Sutra and rejoice, then speak of it to a second person, who also rejoices and in turn speaks of it to a third, and so on, until a fiftieth person hears the sutra. The benefit this person receives by rejoicing upon hearing the sutra, even at fifty removes, will be immeasurable.
Continued Biographies of Eminent Priests, The A collection of the biographies of five hundred eminent Buddhist priests who lived during the period from 502, the beginning of the Liang dynasty, to 645. It was compiled by Tao-hsüan of the T’ang dynasty as a continuation of The Liang Dynasty Biographies of Eminent Priests.
Correct and Equal category of sutras See Correct and Equal period.
Correct and Equal Dhāranī Sutra A sutra translated into Chinese in four volumes by Fa-chung in the early fifth century. The full title is the Great Correct and Equal Dhāranī Sutra. The sutra emphasizes the power of certain dhāranī, or mystic formulas.
Correct and Equal period The third of the five periods, the period of the introductory Mahayana. In this period Shakyamuni Buddha refuted his disciples’ attachment to Hinayana and directed them toward provisional Mahayana with such teachings as the Amida, Mahāvairochana, and Vimalakīrti sutras. According to T’ien-t’ai’s assessment, the Correct and Equal period lasted for eight or sixteen years. This period is also known as the Vaipulya period and the Extended period.
correct and equal sutras Another term for Mahayana sutras. This expression is differentiated from the expression “the Correct and Equal sutras,” the sutras of the Correct and Equal period. But in some cases, the “correct and equal sutras” refers to the sutras of the Correct and Equal period.
Correct and Equal sutras Also known as the sutras of the Correct and Equal period. Lower provisional Mahayana sutras belonging to the third of the five periods of Shakyamuni’s teachings. In these sutras Shakyamuni refutes his disciples’ attachment to Hinayana and leads them toward higher teachings.
correct practices Practices for attaining rebirth in the Pure Land, expounded by Shan-tao, a patriarch of the Pure Land school in China. He classified Buddhist practices into “correct practices” and “sundry practices,” and defined correct practices as those directed toward Amida Buddha, such as reading and reciting the three basic scriptures of the Pure Land school, invoking Amida Buddha’s name, and extolling Amida Buddha. Among these correct practices, Shan-tao designated the practice of invoking Amida Buddha’s name as the primary practice. The term “sundry practices” signifies all Buddhist practices not directed toward Amida Buddha.
Craving-Filled A Buddhist deity said to purify human beings of earthly desires and free them from illusions and sufferings. Craving-Filled is one of a group of deities called the wisdom kings, who are said to destroy all obstacles.