Calm and Bright, Mount Another name for Mount Sumeru. The Sanskrit name Sumeru was translated into Chinese as “Calm and Bright” and “Wonderful Bright.”
cause-awakened one See pratyekabuddha.
Ceremony in the Air One of the three assemblies described in the Lotus Sutra, in which the entire gathering is suspended in space above the sahā world. It extends from the “Treasure Tower” (eleventh) chapter to the “Entrustment” (twenty-second) chapter. The heart of this ceremony is the revelation of the Buddha’s original enlightenment in the remote past and the transfer of the essence of the sutra to the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.
ceremony of anointment Also, anointment ceremony. A ceremony, commonly performed in esoteric Buddhism, in which one is invested with a certain status. The ceremony is said to derive from the practice of pouring water on the heads of rulers in ancient India upon their ascending the throne. Broadly speaking, there are three kinds of esoteric anointment ceremonies: those designed to establish a relationship between the individual and the Buddha, those to confer the status of practitioner of the esoteric teaching, and those to invest a person with the rank of āchārya, qualifying him to teach the esoteric doctrine.
Chandaka A servant of Shakyamuni before he renounced secular life. The night Shakyamuni left the palace to seek the way, Chandaka accompanied him, holding his horse Kanthaka by the bridle. After Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, Chandaka became his disciple. Being arrogant, he was unable to get along with the other monks. However, it is said that, after the Buddha’s passing, he followed Ānanda and attained the state of arhat.
chandāla (Skt) The untouchable caste, below the lowest of the four classes in ancient India. People in this class handled corpses, butchered animals, and carried out other tasks connected with death or the killing of living things. Since Nichiren Daishonin was born to a family of fishermen, he declared himself to be a member of the chandāla.
Chandrakīrti Also presented as Chandrayashas. A minister who served King Ajātashatru. When the king was suffering from virulent sores all over his body, his six ministers exhorted him to consult the six non-Buddhist teachers. Chandrakīrti was one of them, and he urged the king to see Pūrana, one of the six non-Buddhist teachers.
Chang-an (561–632) T’ien-t’ai’s disciple and successor. He recorded T’ien-t’ai’s lectures and later compiled them as The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra, The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra, and Great Concentration and Insight. His own works include The Annotations on the Nirvana Sutra and The Profound Meaning of the Nirvana Sutra.
Chang Liang (d. 168 b.c.e.) A statesman and strategist who assisted Liu Pang, or Emperor Kao-tsu, in the overthrow of the Ch’in and the establishment of the Former Han dynasty of China.
Chao Kao (d. 207 b.c.e.) A minister to the First Emperor of the Ch’in dynasty in China. When the emperor died of an illness, the eunuch official Chao Kao forged an edict putting the emperor’s youngest son on the throne. He brought about the death of the emperor’s eldest son, as well as that of many generals and high ministers and, eventually, the second emperor. In this way he manipulated power and attempted to control the throne but was finally killed by the third ruler, the First Emperor’s grandson.
Ch’en Chen (n.d.) An older brother of T’ien-t’ai. He was told that he would die in one month but prolonged his life for fifteen years by practicing T’ien-t’ai’s teaching of concentration and insight.
Ch’eng-kuan (738–839) Also called the Teacher of the Nation Ch’ing-liang. The fourth patriarch of the Flower Garland school in China.
Chen-yüan era catalog An index of Chinese Buddhist texts compiled by Yüan-chao in 800, the sixteenth year of the Chen-yüan era. This catalog lists 2,417 works.
Chia-hsiang See Chi-tsang.
Chi-cha (c. 561–515 b.c.e.) Son of Shou-meng, king of Wu in China. According to tradition, while passing through the state of Hsü, he met the lord of Hsü, who, seeing Chi-cha’s precious sword, wanted it for himself, though he did not dare say so. Chi-cha sensed the lord’s wish and resolved to give it to him on his way back through Hsü. Upon returning, however, he discovered that the lord had died. He therefore placed the sword as an offering at the lord’s grave.
Chieh The last ruler of the Hsia dynasty of China. King Chieh abandoned himself to a dissolute life and caused his people great distress with his tyranny and extravagance. Thus he brought about the downfall of his dynasty. Together with King Chou of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, he is regarded as the epitome of a tyrant.
Chien-chen See Ganjin.
Chih-che An honorific title meaning “person of wisdom.” The Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai was also called the Great Teacher Chih-che and the Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai Chih-che.
Chih-i See T’ien-t’ai.
Chih-tsang (458–522) A priest of the Northern and Southern Dynasties period in China. He was revered by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty and wrote a number of treatises and commentaries at K’ai-shan-ssu temple. Chih-tsang is considered one of the three great teachers of the Liang dynasty, together with Fa-yün and Seng-min.
Chih-yen (602–668) The second patriarch of the Chinese Flower Garland school.
ch’i-lin (Chin) Imaginary beast appearing in ancient Chinese legend. It was thought to resemble a fiery horse and was believed to appear to herald the advent of a sage.
Chinchā Also, Chinchāmānavikā. A woman who slandered Shakyamuni by tying a pot to her belly under her robe and publicly declaring that she was pregnant by him. According to the Commitment of Previous Deeds Sutra, her falsehood was exposed by the god Shakra, who assumed the form of a rat and gnawed through the string holding the pot in place. The slander of Chinchā is regarded as one of the nine great ordeals that Shakyamuni experienced.
Ching K’o (d. 227 b.c.e.) A swordsman who attempted on behalf of Prince Tan of the state of Yen to assassinate the king of Ch’in, the ruler who later united China under his rule and became the First Emperor of the Ch’in dynasty.
Chin-kang-chih (671–741) (Skt Vajrabodhi) An Indian scholar of the esoteric teaching. He studied the esoteric teachings as a disciple of Nāgabodhi before journeying to China in 720, where he won the support of Emperor Hsüan-tsung. He translated several texts into Chinese and was the teacher of Pu-k’ung.
Chinzei An ancient name for Kyushu, Japan’s southernmost major island.
Chishō (814–891) Also known as Enchin or the Great Teacher Chishō. The fifth chief priest of Enryaku-ji, the head temple of the Tendai school on Mount Hiei. In 853 he went to T’ang China, where he studied the T’ien-t’ai and esoteric doctrines. On his return he mixed esoteric doctrines with those of the Tendai school. He also erected a hall for performing the esoteric ceremony of anointment at Onjō-ji temple.
Chi-tsang (549–623) Also called Chia-hsiang. A priest of the Three Treatises school in China, sometimes regarded as the first patriarch of that school.
chō (Jpn) A unit of area and a unit of linear measurement as well. As a unit of area, a chō measured about 9,920 square meters. A chō as a unit of linear measurement equaled about 110 meters. Its exact size varied somewhat from era to era.
Chou The last ruler of the Yin (Shang) dynasty, which ended in the eleventh century b.c.e. Infamous as an oppressive ruler, together with King Chieh of the Hsia dynasty, he is regarded as the epitome of tyranny. He was prone to drunkenness and debauchery, and was encouraged in his evildoing by his favorite concubine, Ta Chi. Because of his corruption and cruelty, the feudal lords and people of the kingdom eventually turned against him. He was finally defeated by King Wu of the Chou dynasty.
Chūdapanthaka The younger of two brothers who were followers of Shakyamuni Buddha. The elder brother’s name was Mahāpanthaka. The elder brother was clever, but his younger sibling was stupid. Accounts vary considerably according to the source. According to one account, both brothers were stupid. According to another account, Chūda is the name of the elder brother, and Panthaka, that of the younger brother. Chūdapanthaka was so dull-witted that in three years he was unable to learn even a single verse of the Buddhist teachings, despite having been instructed by five hundred arhats. Taking pity on him, the Buddha gave him a verse to learn, explaining to Chūdapanthaka the meaning of the verse. Chūdapanthaka attained an awakening and reached the state of arhat.
Chu Fa-lan (n.d.) An Indian monk traditionally believed to have first introduced Buddhism to China together with Kāshyapa Mātanga. The Sanskrit for Chu Fa-lan is unknown. It is said that in c.e. 67 they traveled from India to Lo-yang in China at the request of Emperor Ming of the Later Han dynasty.
Chunda A blacksmith in Pāva Village who was deeply moved by Shakyamuni’s preaching and offered the Buddha his last meal before his nirvana.
Chu Tao-sheng (d. 434) Also called Tao-sheng. A Chinese priest and disciple of Kumārajīva who insisted, on the basis of his study of Fa-hsien’s Chinese version of the Nirvana Sutra, that even an icchantika, or person of incorrigible disbelief, can attain Buddhahood. For this, he was banished from the community of priests to a mountain in Su-chou. Later, when the Nirvana Sutra was translated by Dharmaraksha into Chinese, Tao-sheng’s assertion was verified.
Clarification of the Schools Based on T’ien-t’ai’s Doctrine, A A work that Dengyō wrote in 813. It shows how the Buddhist scholars in China based their thought on T’ien-t’ai’s doctrines and, on this basis, refutes the errors of the True Word, Flower Garland, Three Treatises, Dharma Characteristics, and other schools.
Classic of Filial Piety, The (Chin Hsiao ching) A work purportedly written by Tseng Tzu, a disciple of Confucius. Written in the form of a dialogue between Tseng Tzu and the master, it stresses filial piety as the cardinal virtue and the source of all instruction. It enjoyed special popularity under the Han dynasty emperors (202 b.c.e.–c.e. 220).
Clear and Cool, Mount According to the Flower Garland Sutra, the abode of Manjushrī. “Clear and Cool” is the translation of Ch’ing-liang in Chinese. It later came to be associated with Mount Ch’ing-liang, also known as Mount Wu-t’ai, in China.
Cloud Thunder Sound King (1) The Buddha who appears in the “Wonderful Sound” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. This chapter says that in the remote past Bodhisattva Wonderful Sound served the Buddha Cloud Thunder Sound King. (2) Another name for the Buddha Cloud Thunder Sound Constellation King Flower Wisdom, the Buddha who appears in the “King Wonderful Adornment” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. According to this chapter, he instructed King Wonderful Adornment, who was the father of Pure Storehouse and Pure Eye. One view regards the above-mentioned Buddhas as the same.
cold-suffering bird A legendary bird said to live in the Snow Mountains. This bird, tortured during the night by the cold, determines to build a nest in the morning. When day breaks, however, it instead sleeps away the hours in the warm sunlight and forgets about building its nest. Thus, when night falls, the bird must suffer again.
combining, excluding, corresponding, and including Categories describing the various provisional sutras and used to differentiate between them and the Lotus Sutra. These four terms are derived from the relationship between the four teachings of doctrine and the first four of the five periods. The four teachings of doctrine are T’ien-t’ai’s classification of Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings according to their content. They are the Tripitaka teaching, the connecting teaching, the specific teaching, and the perfect teaching. The five periods are T’ien-t’ai’s classification of Shakyamuni’s teachings according to the order in which he believed they had been expounded. They are the Flower Garland period, the Āgama period, the Correct and Equal period, the Wisdom period, and the Lotus and Nirvana period. During the Flower Garland period, the specific teaching was combined with the perfect teaching. During the Āgama period, only the Tripitaka, or Hinayana, teachings were expounded, and the connecting, specific, and perfect teachings were excluded. During the Correct and Equal period, all four teachings were taught in a manner corresponding to the people’s capacity, while during the Wisdom period the connecting and specific teachings were included in the perfect teaching. In contrast to the provisional doctrines preached during these periods, which either excluded the perfect teaching or mixed it with other teachings, the Lotus Sutra contains only the perfect teaching. Hence it is called the pure and perfect teaching.
Comparison of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, A A work by Kōbō. In this work, Kōbō compares the esoteric teachings with the exoteric teachings and asserts that the former are superior to the latter. This work also outlines the ten stages of the mind. See also ten stages of the mind.
connecting teaching One of the four teachings of doctrine, a classification of Shakyamuni’s teachings set forth by T’ien-t’ai. The connecting teaching corresponds to introductory Mahayana, being so called because it forms a link between the Tripitaka teaching and the specific teaching. Like the Tripitaka teaching, the connecting teaching is also concerned with casting off attachment to the threefold world. However, the teachings of this category deny the view of the Tripitaka teaching that all things when analyzed prove to be without substance, and instead set forth the view that all things, just as they are, are without substance, because they arise and disappear only by virtue of dependent origination. These teachings are directed primarily to bodhisattvas and secondarily to persons of the two vehicles.
Constellation King Flower The bodhisattva who appears in the “Medicine King” chapter of the Lotus Sutra to play the role of questioning the Buddha. In this chapter Shakyamuni Buddha orders him to protect the sutra with his transcendental power because it provides good medicine for the ills of the people of the entire world.
Contemplation on the Mind-Ground Sutra A sutra explains that the states of the Buddha, bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, arhat, and voice-hearer all originate from the minds of ordinary people. Thus it compares the mind to the ground, which produces grain. The sutra also defines the four debts of gratitude—those owed to one’s parents, to all living beings, to one’s sovereign, and to the three treasures—and extols the blessings of observing the mind.
continual propagation to the fiftieth person A principle described in the “Benefits of Responding with Joy” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Suppose, the text says, that, after Shakyamuni Buddha’s passing, a person were to hear the Lotus Sutra and rejoice, then preach it to a second person, who also rejoices and in turn preaches it to a third, and so on, until a fiftieth person hears the sutra. The benefit this person receives by rejoicing upon hearing the sutra, even at fifty removes, would be immeasurable.
Continued Biographies of Eminent Priests, The A collection of the biographies of five hundred eminent priests who lived during the period from 502, the beginning of the Liang dynasty, to 645. It was compiled by Tao-hsüan of the T’ang dynasty as a continuation of The Liang Dynasty Biographies of Eminent Priests.
Correct and Equal period The third of the five periods, the period of the introductory Mahayana. In this period Shakyamuni refuted his disciples’ attachment to Hinayana and directed them toward provisional Mahayana with such teachings as the Amida, Mahāvairochana, and Vimalakīrti sutras. According to T’ien-t’ai’s conjecture, the Correct and Equal period lasted for eight or sixteen years. This period is also known as the Vaipulya period and the Extended period.
correct and equal sutras Another term for Mahayana sutras. This expression is differentiated from the expression “the Correct and Equal sutras,” the sutras of the Correct and Equal period.
Correct and Equal sutras Also known as the sutras of the Correct and Equal period. Lower provisional Mahayana sutras belonging to the third of the five periods of Shakyamuni’s teachings. In these sutras Shakyamuni refutes his disciples’ attachment to Hinayana and leads them toward higher teachings.
correct practices Practices for attaining rebirth in the Pure Land, expounded by Shan-tao, a patriarch of the Pure Land school in China. He classifies Buddhist practices into “correct practices” and “sundry practices,” and defines correct practices as those directed toward Amida Buddha, such as reading and reciting the three basic scriptures of the Pure Land school, invoking Amida Buddha’s name, and extolling Amida Buddha. Among these correct practices, Shan-tao designates the practice of invoking Amida Buddha’s name as the primary practice. The term sundry practices signifies all Buddhist practices not directed toward Amida Buddha.
Craving-Filled A Buddhist deity said to purify human beings of earthly desires and free them from illusions and sufferings. Craving-Filled is one of a group of deities, called the wisdom kings, who are said to destroy all obstacles.