Rāhula Shakyamuni’s son. One of the Buddha’s ten major disciples, respected as the foremost in inconspicuous practice.
Rājagriha The capital of the kingdom of Magadha in ancient India. It was one of the largest cities in India in Shakyamuni’s time and the center of new cultural and philosophical activities. King Bimbisāra and his son Ajātashatru lived in this capital, where Shakyamuni often visited and preached. Rājagriha and its environs were also the location of many important Buddhist sites such as the Cave of the Seven Leaves where the First Buddhist Council was held, Eagle Peak, and Bamboo Grove Monastery. Rājagriha means the royal palace.
Ratnamati (n.d.) A monk of central India and a translator of Buddhist scriptures. In 508 he traveled to Lo-yang in China and, with Bodhiruchi, translated The Treatise on the Ten Stages Sutra into Chinese. The Chinese translations of The Treatise on the Lotus Sutra and The Treatise on the Treasure Vehicle of Buddhahood are also accredited to him.
realization of the non-birth and non-extinction of all phenomena Ordinary people perceive through the senses that all phenomena are impermanent, but the truth the Buddhas realized is that nothing is either born or dies. When one reaches the stage of this realization, one attains peace and contentment.
Realization of Virtue A monk who appears in the Nirvana Sutra. When the correct teaching of Buddhism was about to perish, he strove to protect the teaching and was attacked by many evil monks and their followers. The king Possessor of Virtue fought in his defense and was killed in the battle. It is said that because of their devotion to Buddhism, the king Possessor of Virtue was reborn as Shakyamuni Buddha and the monk Realization of Virtue as Kāshyapa Buddha.
Record of the Western Regions, The A record by Hsüan-tsang of his travels through Central Asia and India between 629 and 645 in search of Buddhist scriptures. This book describes the culture, legends, history, Buddhism, and politics of 138 states.
regent In Nichiren Daishonin’s writings, “regent” mostly refers to the political leader of the Kamakura shogunate. In the early Kamakura period, the official leader of the shogunate was a military general, or shogun, but after the death of Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun, this position had become nominal and ceremonial. Actual power and leadership were transferred to the shogun’s regent. The regent had both political and military powers and administered the affairs of state. From the inception of the office of regent in 1205, through the end of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, the regency was held by leaders of the Hōjō clan. See also Appendix K (p. 1140).
Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra A sutra that explains the repaying of moral obligations from a Mahayana Buddhist standpoint. Shakyamuni Buddha was attacked by Brahmans as unfilial for leaving his parents and entering religious life. The Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra refutes this criticism with the argument that, by renouncing the world and awakening to the truth that leads all people to Buddhahood, one can truly repay one’s obligations to others.
replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle Also, “replacing the three vehicles with the one vehicle,” “opening the three vehicles and revealing the one vehicle,” and “the opening of the three vehicles and the revealing of the one vehicle.” A concept revealed in the theoretical teaching of the Lotus Sutra, where Shakyamuni states that the three vehicles—the teachings for voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas—or the provisional teachings are not ends in themselves, but expedient means by which he leads people to the one vehicle of Buddhahood. See also concise replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle; expanded replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle.
Retired Emperor Gotoba See Retired Emperor of Oki.
Retired Emperor of Awa (1195–1231) A reference to the eighty-third emperor Tsuchimikado who was the first son of Emperor Gotoba. In 1221, three retired emperors—Gotoba, Tsuchimikado, and Juntoku—together with the reigning emperor Chūkyō, joined in an attempt, led by Gotoba, to overthrow the military government in Kamakura. Their forces were defeated, however, by those of the Kamakura regent Hōjō Yoshitoki. Tsuchimikado was exiled to the province of Awa in Shikoku (a different Awa from the Daishonin’s birthplace). Hence he came to be called the Retired Emperor of Awa.
Retired Emperor of Oki (1180–1239) The Retired Emperor Gotoba. In 1221, three years after his retirement, he attempted to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate. The leader of the shogunate, the regent Hōjō Yoshitoki, however, emerged victorious. As a result, Gotoba was exiled to the island of Oki, hence the designation the Retired Emperor of Oki. This incident, called the Jōkyū Disturbance, in effect destroyed any remaining political influence of the imperial house and allowed the shogunate to consolidate its hold on power.
Retired Emperor of Sado (1197–1242) A reference to the eighty-fourth emperor Juntoku, who was a son of the eighty-second emperor, Gotoba. Having conspired with Gotoba in the Jōkyū Disturbance, the 1221 failed attempt to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate, Juntoku was exiled to Sado Island, while Gotoba was exiled to the island of Oki. Hence, Juntoku came to be called the Retired Emperor of Sado.
Revelation of the Profound Secrets Sutra See Profound Secrets Sutra.
reverse relationship Also, poison-drum relationship. A bond formed with the Lotus Sutra by opposing or slandering it. That is, even though one should slander the Lotus Sutra and fall into hell as a result, because of the reverse relationship formed with the sutra, one will eventually attain Buddhahood.
reward body One of the three bodies attributed to Buddhas—the Dharma body, reward body, and manifested body. The reward body is the Buddha wisdom obtained as the reward of completing bodhisattva practice.
ri (Jpn) A unit of linear measurement. The exact definition of ri (Chin li) differed in China and Japan, and from era to era. In China at different times it equaled about 400, 440, 530, 550, or 560 meters. In Japan it equaled about 450, 545, or 655 meters.
Rida An elder brother of Aniruddha in a previous lifetime, when Aniruddha was known by the name of Arida. The story appears in the Storehouse of Various Treasures Sutra and elsewhere. The Sanskrit names for Rida and Arida are unknown.
Rishabha One of the so-called three ascetics of ancient India, Rishabha was a Brahman whose teachings are said to have paved the way for Jainism.
river of three crossings The river that people are said to cross after their death. It has three points of crossing—a bridge, a ford, and a spot where there is only deep, serpent-infested water. Where one crosses depends on the weight of the offenses that one committed while alive.
Rōben (689–773) The second patriarch of the Japanese Flower Garland school and the first chief priest of Tōdai-ji temple. Under the patronage of Emperor Shōmu, he devoted himself to the founding of Tōdai-ji, and in 752 he was appointed its first chief priest.
Root of Joy According to the Non-substantiality of All Phenomena Sutra, a monk who lived in the latter age after the passing of the Buddha Lion Sound King. He did not value ascetic practices but taught only the doctrine of the true aspect of all phenomena and, because of this, was insulted by the monk Superior Intent. Root of Joy upheld his beliefs and attained Buddhahood, while Superior Intent is said to have fallen into hell.
ryō (Jpn) A unit of weight in Japan which was modeled after that of ancient China. One ryō was equivalent to about 37.5 grams, though the exact weight of one ryō differed according to the historical period. When ryō was used as a unit of weight to weigh medicine and incense, one ryō equaled about fifteen grams.
Ryōkan (1217–1303) Also known as Ninshō. A priest of the True Word Precepts school who was a contemporary of Nichiren Daishonin. He received the precepts from Eizon, who was revered as a restorer of the Precepts school in Japan. In 1261 Ryōkan went to Kamakura, where he was named chief priest of Kōsen-ji, a temple founded by a Hōjō regent. Later he became chief priest of Gokuraku-ji, founded by Hōjō Shigetoki. During the drought of 1271, he was ordered by the government to make rain fall through prayer. Nichiren Daishonin challenged him, stating that he would become Ryōkan’s disciple if Ryōkan succeeded in making it rain; but if Ryōkan failed, he should become the Daishonin’s disciple. Ryōkan agreed, but did not honor his commitment after failing to cause rain to fall. Ryōkan instead had false accusations brought against the Daishonin.
Ryūkan (1148–1227) A priest of the Pure Land school in Japan; a disciple of Hōnen, the school’s founder. Because he lived at Chōraku-ji temple in Kyoto, his doctrinal lineage is known as the Chōraku-ji branch of the Pure Land school.