Ta Chi The royal consort of King Chou, the last ruler of China’s Yin (Shang) dynasty in the eleventh century b.c.e. Ta Chi was a daughter of the ruler of Yu-su and was taken by Chou when he attacked the state. Enslaved by his love for her, the king misgoverned the country, tended toward cruel behavior, and made enemies. When his minister Pi Kan tried to dissuade him from his indulgence toward Ta Chi, King Chou flew into a rage and killed him. Eventually, the Yin was defeated by King Wu of the kingdom of Chou (written with a different character from King Chou’s name). Chinese and Japanese literature portray her as the archetype of an evil woman. When Chou was defeated by King Wu, Ta Chi was put to death along with the ruler.
T’ai-kung Wang (n.d.) A general who served King Wen, the founder of the Chou dynasty. During the Yin (Shang) dynasty, he was living in seclusion but emerged to lead the army of King Wen at the latter’s request. After Wen’s death, he served King Wu, Wen’s successor, and fought valorously to overthrow the Yin dynasty.
Taira clan Also, the Heike clan. An offshoot of Japan’s imperial family. Under the leadership of Taira no Kiyomori, the Tairas seized absolute power in the twelfth century. In 1185, at the naval battle of Dannoura, the forces of the Minamoto clan defeated the Taira, marking the end of Taira hegemony. Minamoto no Yoritomo, the head of the Minamoto clan, then proceeded to consolidate his rule, establishing the Kamakura government later that year.
Taira no Kiyomori (1118–1181) Leader of the Heike, or Taira, clan. After achieving political preeminence, he dominated the imperial court. He married his daughter to the emperor and eventually installed his grandson as emperor. The Minamoto clan, whose leader was Minamoto no Yoritomo, overthrew the Tairas shortly after Kiyomori’s death and founded the Kamakura shogunate.
Taira no Munemori See Munemori.
T’ai-tsung (598–649) The second emperor (r. 626–649) of the T’ang dynasty in China. He developed and completed the government structure, institutions, and law code that had been established by Kao-tsu, his father and the founder of the dynasty. He was also engaged in organization of the military and in military campaigns against the Turks. During his reign the kingdoms located west of China and lying along the Silk Road were brought under his rule.
Takahira (1180–1239) The name of Emperor Gotoba. See also Retired Emperor of Oki.
Tan, the Duke of Chou See Duke of Chou.
T’an-luan (476–542) The founder of the Chinese Pure Land school. He received the Meditation on the Buddha Infinite Life Sutra from Bodhiruchi at Lo-yang and devoted himself to the Pure Land teachings, claiming that the practice of calling on the name of Amida Buddha was the “easy-to-practice way” that would enable all people to attain rebirth in Amida’s pure land, and rejecting all other practices as the “difficult-to-practice way.”
Tao-ch’o (562–645) The second of the five patriarchs of the Pure Land school in China. He classified the Buddhist sutras into the two categories of Pure Land teachings and Sacred Way teachings. He asserted that the Sacred Way teachings, which expound the achievement of enlightenment through one’s own power, are too difficult for ordinary people of the latter age, and that only the Pure Land teachings, which claim that reliance on Amida’s power leads to rebirth in Amida Buddha’s pure land, can offer salvation.
Tao-hsien (n.d.) A priest of the T’ien-t’ai school in T’ang China, said to have been a disciple of Miao-lo. In the Ta-li era (766–779), he went to Ch’ang-an, the capital, where he devoted himself to writing. The Supplement to “The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra” is one of his works.
Tao-hsin (580–651) The fourth patriarch of the Zen school in China. T’ai-tsung, the second emperor of the T’ang dynasty, heard of his virtue and three times summoned him to the capital, but Tao-hsin refused each time. Eventually the emperor threatened to behead him, but Tao-hsin remained adamant; impressed, the emperor forgave him.
Tao-hsüan (596–667) The founder of the Nan-shan branch of the Precepts school in China. The Nan-shan school was the only branch of the Precepts school to survive; therefore, it later became synonymous with the Precepts school. Tao-hsüan assisted Hsüan-tsang in his translation work. He wrote several books on the precepts. He is also known as the author of The Continued Biographies of Eminent Priests, a collection of the biographies of five hundred eminent priests who lived during the period from 502 to 645.
Tao-lang (1) (n.d.) A priest of the Three Treatises school of the kingdom of Northern Liang (397–439). When the Indian monk Dharmaraksha completed his Chinese translation of the Nirvana Sutra in Northern Liang in 421, Tao-lang wrote the preface. (2) See Hsing-huang.
Tao-sui (n.d.) A priest of the T’ien-t’ai school in T’ang China. He studied T’ien-t’ai’s teachings under Miao-lo. In 805 he taught the T’ien-t’ai meditation to Dengyō who had come from Japan.
Tayū no Sakan See Ikegami Munenaka.
teachings of the three periods A comparative classification of the Buddha’s teachings. This system arranges Shakyamuni’s teachings into three categories according to the order of preaching and content. The definition of these categories differs among the Buddhist schools. In the Dharma Characteristics school, the first period consists of the Āgama sutras. During this period the Buddha taught the four noble truths to refute attachment to the self. In these teachings he taught that the self is without substance, but that the dharmas, or elements of existence, themselves are real. The second period is represented by the Wisdom sutras, which teach that all things are non-substantial. This doctrine was intended to refute attachment to belief in the reality of the dharmas as taught in the Hinayana, or Āgama, sutras. The third period includes the Flower Garland Sutra, the Profound Secrets Sutra, and the Lotus Sutra. The teachings in this period are intended to refute attachment both to the idea that the dharmas are non-substantial and to the belief that they are real. They teach that the reality of all things is neither real nor non-substantial; this is called the Middle Way. The teachings of the first two periods are regarded as temporary and imperfect, while those of the third period are considered to reveal the truth. In the Three Treatises school, the teaching of the first period corresponds to Hinayana while those of the second and third are divisions of Mahayana. They are (1) the teaching that both the mind and objective reality are real; (2) the teaching that objective reality is without substance and the mind alone is real; and (3) the teaching that both the mind and objective reality are without substance. The Three Treatises school defines the teaching of the third period as the complete teaching.
ten comparisons See ten similes.
Tendai Lotus school Another name for the Tendai school, called so because it ranks the Lotus Sutra above all other sutras.
Tendai school A school founded by Dengyō in Japan. Its head temple is Enryaku-ji on Mount Hiei. In 804 Dengyō journeyed to T’ang China, where he completed his study of the T’ien-t’ai (Jpn Tendai) teachings. He returned to Japan in 805 and officially founded the Tendai school in 806. Jikaku and Chishō, respectively the third and fifth chief priests of Enryaku-ji, incorporated esoteric teachings into the doctrine of the Tendai school. Hence the Tendai school in Japan rapidly assumed the character of esotericism, differing in this respect from the Chinese T’ien-t’ai school.
ten demon daughters The female demons described in the “Dhāranī” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Together with Mother of Demon Children, they vowed to protect the votaries of the Lotus Sutra.
ten directions The entire dimension of space, that is, the eight directions of a compass, plus up and down.
ten evil acts Killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, flattery (or random and irresponsible speech), defaming others, duplicity, greed, anger, and foolishness (or the holding of mistaken views).
ten factors A principle clarifying the aspects common to all life in any of the Ten Worlds. As listed in the “Expedient Means” chapter of the Lotus Sutra, they are appearance, nature, entity, power, influence, internal cause, relation, latent effect, manifest effect, and their consistency from beginning to end, or the unifying factor that makes all of the previous nine consistent from beginning to end.
ten good precepts Ten precepts for lay believers of Mahayana. They are prohibitions against the ten evils of (1) killing, (2) stealing, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) lying, (5) flattery or indiscriminate and irresponsible speech, (6) defaming, (7) duplicity, (8) greed, (9) anger, and (10) foolishness or the holding of mistaken views.
ten honorable titles Ten epithets for a Buddha, expressing his power, wisdom, virtue, and compassion.
ten major offenses Violations of the ten major precepts for Mahayana bodhisattvas. See also ten major precepts.
ten major precepts Precepts for Mahayana bodhisattvas set forth in the Brahmā Net Sutra. They are (1) not to kill, (2) not to steal, (3) not to engage in any sexual relations, (4) not to lie, (5) not to sell liquor, (6) not to discuss others’ faults, (7) not to praise oneself or disparage others, (8) not to begrudge offerings or spare one’s efforts for the sake of Buddhism, (9) not to give way to anger, and (10) not to speak ill of the three treasures.
ten meditations Ten kinds of meditation set forth by T’ien-t’ai in his Great Concentration and Insight as a way to observe the truth of life. They are (1) the meditation on the region of the unfathomable; (2) the meditation to arouse compassion; (3) the meditation to enjoy security in the realm of truth; (4) the meditation to eliminate attachments; (5) the meditation to discern what leads to the realization of the true aspect of life and what prevents it; (6) the meditation to make proper use of the thirty-seven aids to the way; (7) the meditation to remove obstacles to enlightenment while practicing the six pāramitās; (8) the meditation to recognize the stages of one’s progress; (9) the meditation to stabilize one’s mind; and (10) the meditation to remove attachment to what is not true enlightenment.
ten mystic principles Principles set forth by T’ien-t’ai in interpreting the word myō of Myoho-renge-kyo, the title of the Lotus Sutra. According to T’ien-t’ai, the ten mystic principles are all implicit in the single word myō. There are two categories of ten mystic principles: the ten mystic principles of the theoretical teaching, and the ten mystic principles of the essential teaching, of the Lotus Sutra. The ten mystic principles of the theoretical teaching are based on the concept of the true aspect of all phenomena and the replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle revealed in the first half of the Lotus Sutra. The ten mystic principles of the essential teaching are based on the revelation of the Buddha’s original enlightenment in the remote past, as expounded in the “Life Span” chapter.
ten objects See ten objects of meditation.
ten objects of meditation Also, the ten objects. Objects of meditation set forth by T’ien-t’ai in his Great Concentration and Insight as part of a comprehensive system of meditation for perceiving the truth of three thousand realms in a single moment of life. The ten objects are (1) the phenomenal world that exists by virtue of the five components, the relationship between the six sense organs and their six objects, and the six consciousnesses arising from this relationship, (2) earthly desires, (3) sickness, (4) karmic effect, (5) diabolical functions, (6) attachment to a certain level of meditation, (7) distorted views, (8) arrogance, (9) attachment to the two vehicles, and (10) attachment to the state of the bodhisattva.
ten precepts Precepts for male and female novices of the Buddhist Order. They are (1) not to kill, (2) not to steal, (3) to refrain from all sexual activity, (4) not to lie, (5) not to drink intoxicants, (6) not to wear ornaments or perfume, (7) not to go to listen to singing or watch dancing, (8) not to sleep on an elevated or broad bed, (9) not to eat at an improper hour, i.e., after noon, and (10) not to own valuables such as gold and silver. The “ten precepts” can also refer to the ten good precepts and also to the ten major precepts of the Brahmā Net Sutra.
ten schools The ten schools in Japan—the Dharma Analysis Treasury, Establishment of Truth, Precepts, Dharma Characteristics, Three Treatises, Flower Garland, Tendai, True Word, Zen, and Pure Land schools.
ten schools of northern and southern China See three schools of southern China and seven schools of northern China.
ten similes Also, ten comparisons. Ten similes set forth in the “Medicine King” chapter of the Lotus Sutra to illustrate the superiority of the Lotus Sutra and the greatness of its beneficent power. They are: (1) The simile of water; just as the ocean is foremost among all bodies of water, so the Lotus Sutra is the most profound of all the sutras. (2) The simile of mountains; just as Mount Sumeru is highest among all the mountains, so the Lotus Sutra holds the highest place among the sutras. (3) The simile of the heavenly bodies; just as the moon is foremost among the stars and planets in the night sky, so the Lotus Sutra is likewise among sutras. (4) The simile of the sun; just as the sun can banish all darkness, so the Lotus Sutra can destroy all darkness and that which is not good. (5) The simile of a wheel-turning king; just as the wheel-turning king is foremost among kings, so the Lotus Sutra is the most honored among sutras. (6) The simile of the god Shakra; just as Shakra is king among the thirty-three heavenly gods, so the Lotus Sutra is king among all the sutras. (7) The simile of the great heavenly king Brahmā; just as Brahmā is the father of all living beings, so the Lotus Sutra is father to all sages and those who seek various levels of awakening. (8) The simile of voice-hearers at the four stages of enlightenment and cause-awakened ones; just as voice-hearers at the four stages of enlightenment (the stages of stream-winner, once-returner, non-returner, and arhat) and cause-awakened ones are foremost among all ordinary beings, so the Lotus Sutra is foremost among all the sutra teachings. This simile also states that one who can uphold the sutra is likewise foremost among all living beings. (9) The simile of bodhisattvas; just as bodhisattvas are foremost when compared with all voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones, so the Lotus Sutra is foremost among all the sutra teachings. (10) The simile of the Buddha; just as the Buddha is king of the doctrines, so the Lotus Sutra is king of the sutras.
ten stages of development Ten stages through which the practitioner conquers the deeper levels of darkness so as to perceive the truth of the Middle Way. In the system of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice, they are viewed as the forty-first through the fiftieth stages.
ten stages of devotion The thirty-first through the fortieth of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice. These ten stages follow the ten stages of faith, ten stages of security, and ten stages of practice. In these ten stages, one directs one’s blessings toward all people and aims to perceive the Middle Way.
ten stages of faith The first ten of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice. The ten stages of faith, from the stage of arousing pure faith through the stage of fulfilling vows, include assiduousness, perceiving the non-substantiality of all things, and guarding the mind against earthly desires.
ten stages of security The ten stages from the eleventh through the twentieth of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice. They are (1) arousing the aspiration for Buddhahood, (2) contemplating the non-substantiality of things, (3) performing all possible good deeds, (4) clearly understanding that, because phenomena exist only in relationship to other phenomena, they have no permanent and unchangeable substance of their own, (5) applying all good deeds as a means to develop one’s perception of the non-substantiality of things, (6) perfecting the wisdom to perceive the non-substantiality of things, (7) never retrogressing from the realization of the truth of the non-substantiality of things, (8) never harboring false views or losing the aspiration for enlightenment, (9) understanding the Buddha’s teachings to the point where one is assured of attaining Buddhahood in the future, and (10) obtaining the wisdom to perceive that, because all things are without substance, there is nothing that is actually born or dies.
ten stages of the mind A system of comparative classification formulated by Kōbō. He classifies Buddhist and non-Buddhist teachings as corresponding to ten stages in the development of religious consciousness, and places a follower of the esoteric teachings of the True Word school in the highest, or tenth, stage.
ten supernatural powers Supernatural powers that Shakyamuni Buddha displays in the “Supernatural Powers” chapter of the Lotus Sutra, before transferring the essence of the sutra to the Bodhisattvas of the Earth.
Ten Worlds Distinct realms or categories of beings. From the lowest to the highest; they are the realms of (1) hell, (2) hungry spirits, (3) animals, (4) asuras, (5) human beings, (6) heavenly beings, (7) voice-hearers, (8) cause-awakened ones, (9) bodhisattvas, and (10) Buddhas. The Ten Worlds are also interpreted as states of life.
theoretical teaching The first fourteen chapters of the twenty-eight-chapter Lotus Sutra, as classified by T’ien-t’ai. In contrast to the essential teaching—the latter fourteen chapters of the sutra, which represent preaching by Shakyamuni as the Buddha who attained enlightenment in the remote past—the theoretical teaching represents preaching by Shakyamuni as the Buddha, who first attained enlightenment during his lifetime in India. The core of the theoretical teaching is the “Expedient Means” chapter, which teaches that all phenomena manifest the true aspect and that all phenomena are endowed with the ten factors. The “Expedient Means” chapter also states that the sole purpose of the Buddhas’ advent is to lead all people to Buddhahood, and that the three vehicles of voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas are no more than expedient means to lead people to the one Buddha vehicle. The theoretical teaching further states that voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones will attain Buddhahood in the future.
thirty-two features Remarkable physical characteristics possessed by great beings such as Buddhas and wheel-turning kings.
thirty-two features and eighty characteristics The remarkable physical characteristics and extraordinary features possessed by Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
three ascetics Kapila, Ulūka, and Rishabha. Kapila was the founder of the Sāmkhya school, one of the six major schools of Brahmanism in ancient India. Ulūka, also called Kanāda, was the founder of the Vaisheshika school, another of the above six schools. Rishabha stressed the importance of asceticism, and his teachings are said to have prepared the way for Jainism.
three assemblies The three assemblies described in the Lotus Sutra. The first assembly on Eagle Peak, the Ceremony in the Air, and the second assembly on Eagle Peak. According to the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni began preaching the sutra on Eagle Peak, then raised the assembly into midair, where he continued to preach, and finally returned the assembly to Eagle Peak, where the sutra concludes.
three assemblies at two places A description of the setting in which Shakyamuni preached the Lotus Sutra, as depicted in the sutra. The two places are atop Eagle Peak, and in the air. The three assemblies are: the first assembly at Eagle Peak, which continues from the “Introduction” (first) chapter through the first half of the “Treasure Tower” (eleventh) chapter; the assembly in the air, which lasts from the latter half of the “Treasure Tower” chapter to the “Entrustment” (twenty-second) chapter; and the second assembly at Eagle Peak, which lasts from the “Medicine King” (twenty-third) chapter to the “Universal Worthy” (twenty-eight) chapter.
three bodies Three kinds of body that a Buddha possesses: (1) the Dharma body, which indicates the fundamental truth or Law to which a Buddha is enlightened; (2) the reward body, which indicates the Buddha’s wisdom; and (3) the manifested body, or the merciful actions of a Buddha to save people and the physical form that he assumes for that purpose. The three bodies were generally regarded as three different types of Buddhas, but in the Lotus Sutra they are shown to be three aspects of a single Buddha.
three calamities A reference to two sets of three calamities—lesser and greater. The three lesser calamities are warfare, pestilence, and famine. The calamity of famine is also called the calamity of high grain prices or inflation, because inflation was caused by a shortage of grain. The three greater calamities are those of fire, water, and wind. The three calamities occur at the end of a kalpa. The three lesser calamities are often referred to in conjunction with the seven disasters as the “three calamities and seven disasters.”
three cardinal sins The three grave sins committed by Devadatta. Constituting three of the five cardinal sins, they are (1) causing disunity in the Buddhist community, (2) injuring the Buddha, and (3) killing an arhat.
three categories of illusion A classification established by T’ien-t’ai. They are (1) illusions of thought and desire (illusions of thought are distorted perceptions of the truth, while illusions of desire refer to base inclinations such as greed and anger); (2) illusions innumerable as particles of dust and sand, which arise when bodhisattvas try to master innumerable teachings in order to save others; and (3) illusions about the true nature of existence.
three comprehensive precepts Also, three comprehensive pure precepts or threefold pure precept. A set of precepts for Mahayana bodhisattvas, whether laity or clergy, expounded in the Brahmā Net Sutra and the Jeweled Necklace Sutra. The first two are for one’s own benefit and the last for the benefit of others. They are (1) the precept that encompasses all the rules and standards of behavior set forth by the Buddha for Mahayana bodhisattvas, i.e., to observe all those precepts and prevent evil; (2) the precept that encompasses all good deeds, i.e., to strive to perform good deeds; and (3) the precept that encompasses all living beings, i.e., to instruct and benefit all living beings.
three cycles of preaching Three cycles of preaching described in the Lotus Sutra, in which Shakyamuni Buddha’s voice-hearer disciples grasp the doctrine of the “replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle.” Each of the three cycles consists of Shakyamuni’s preaching, his disciples’ understanding of what he has preached, and his bestowal of a prediction of future enlightenment upon those disciples. The three cycles of preaching occur in the eight chapters of the Lotus Sutra from “Expedient Means” (second) through “Prophecies” (ninth), and are directed respectively at three groups of disciples: those of superior, intermediate, and inferior capacity. First, in the “Expedient Means” chapter, Shakyamuni preaches the true aspect of all phenomena as the one vehicle doctrine and then replaces the three vehicles with the one vehicle, i.e., he teaches the principle that his disciples must abandon the three vehicles and accept the one vehicle. Shāriputra, who is of superior capacity, understands Shakyamuni’s preaching, and his enlightenment is then predicted in the “Simile and Parable” (third) chapter. Second, in the “Simile and Parable” chapter, Shakyamuni relates the parable of the three carts and the burning house for those who have failed to understand the principle. Maudgalyāyana, Mahākāshyapa, Kātyāyana, and Subhūti, who are of intermediate capacity, understand the principle, and their enlightenment is predicted in the “Bestowal of Prophecy” (sixth) chapter. Third, in the “Parable of the Phantom City” (seventh) chapter, Shakyamuni reveals his relationship with his disciples since the remote past for those who could not grasp the meaning of the parable. Pūrna, Ānanda, Rāhula, and many others of inferior capacity thereby understand the principle and awaken to the one Buddha vehicle. Their enlightenment is predicted in the “Five Hundred Disciples” (eighth) and “Prophecies” chapters. See also replacement of the three vehicles with the one vehicle.
three disciplines See three types of learning.
three evil paths Also, the three evil paths of existence and three evil realms of existence. The realms of suffering into which one falls as a result of evil deeds—the realms of hell, hungry spirits, and animals.
three evil realms of existence See three evil paths.
three existences The past, present, and future. The three aspects of the eternity of life, linked by the law of cause and effect.
threefold contemplation Also, threefold contemplation in a single mind. A method of meditation formulated by T’ien-t’ai to perceive that the three truths of non-substantiality, temporary existence, and the Middle Way are unified in a single mind. Through this meditation, one is said to be able to rid oneself of the three categories of illusion and acquire the three kinds of wisdom (the wisdom of the two vehicles, the wisdom of bodhisattvas, and the Buddha wisdom).
threefold world The world of unenlightened beings who transmigrate within the six paths of existence. They are (1) the world of desire, ruled by various desires; (2) the world of form, whose inhabitants are free from all desires, cravings, and appetites but, still having material form, are subject to certain material restrictions; and (3) the world of formlessness, where the beings are free from both desires and material restrictions.
three good paths Also, three good paths of existence. Among the Ten Worlds, the worlds or realms of asuras, human beings, and heavenly beings, as contrasted with the three evil paths of hell, hungry spirits, and animals. They are called “good” because rebirth in these three paths of existence is held to result from one’s good deeds in a previous existence. In contrast, the three evil paths are called so because rebirth in these paths is due to one’s past evil deeds.
Three Great Secret Laws The core principles of Nichiren Daishonin’s Buddhism: (1) the object of devotion, (2) the invocation, or daimoku of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo, and (3) the sanctuary, or the place where one chants the daimoku before the object of devotion.
three inherent potentials of the Buddha nature A principle formulated by T’ien-t’ai that views the Buddha nature from three perspectives. The three inherent potentials are the innate Buddha nature, the wisdom to perceive it, and the good deeds, or practice, to develop this wisdom and cause the Buddha nature to emerge. Beneficent actions aid the development of wisdom, and developed wisdom realizes the innate Buddha nature. In this way, the three constitute causes that work together to enable one to attain the effect of Buddhahood.
three insights The ability to know the past, to foresee the future, and to eradicate illusions, which Buddhas and arhats are said to possess.
Three Kings Founders of the three dynasties, Hsia, Yin (Shang), and Chou, in China. They are King Yü of the Hsia dynasty, King T’ang of the Yin dynasty, and King Wen of the Chou dynasty, who are said to have realized model government.
three mysteries The three mysteries of body, mouth, and mind, a concept of the esoteric True Word school. In terms of practice, the mystery of the body means the making of mudras, which are gestures with the hands and fingers; the mystery of the mouth means the recitation of mantras (mystic formulas); and the mystery of the mind means meditation on an esoteric mandala or one of the figures appearing in it. The True Word school teaches that through these three practices, one’s body, mouth, and mind are united with those of Mahāvairochana Buddha, thus enabling one to attain Buddhahood in one’s present form.
three obediences Also known as the three types of obedience. A code of conduct that taught women to obey their parents in childhood, their husbands after marriage, and their sons in old age. Together with the five obstacles, they were seen as unavoidable hindrances for women.
three paths Earthly desires, karma, and suffering. Called “paths” because one leads to another. Earthly desires, such as greed, anger, foolishness, arrogance, and doubt, inspire actions that create evil karma. The effect of this evil karma then manifests itself as suffering. Suffering produces more earthly desires, leading to further misguided action, which in turn creates more evil karma and suffering.
three poisons Greed, anger, and foolishness—the fundamental evils inherent in life that give rise to human suffering. They are the most fundamental earthly desires.
three powerful enemies Also, the three types of enemies. Three types of people who persecute those who propagate the Lotus Sutra after the Buddha’s passing, as described in the “Encouraging Devotion” chapter of the sutra. They are (1) lay people ignorant of Buddhism who denounce the votaries of the Lotus Sutra and attack them with swords or staves; (2) arrogant and cunning priests who slander the votaries; and (3) priests respected by the general public who, fearing the loss of fame or profit, induce the secular authorities to persecute the sutra’s votaries.
three Pure Land sutras The three basic sutras of the Pure Land school: the Buddha Infinite Life Sutra, the Meditation on the Buddha Infinite Life Sutra, and the Amida Sutra.
three realms of existence A component of the principle of three thousand realms in a single moment of life. (1) The realm of the five components—form, perception, conception, volition, and consciousness—which constitute a living being. (2) The realm of living beings. (3) The realm of the environment.
three refuges Also, threefold refuge or triple refuge. To take refuge in the three treasures, i.e., to believe in and give allegiance to the Buddha, the Law (the Buddha’s teachings), and the Buddhist Order (community of believers). The “three refuges” can also mean the three treasures themselves. The formula “I take refuge in the Buddha, I take refuge in the Law, I take refuge in the Order” was recited as a profession of faith by monks and laypersons from very early times during initiation and other Buddhist ceremonies.
three robes The three kinds of robes worn by a monk according to the time or occasion. Together with a mendicant’s bowl, or begging bowl, these are all that a monk was permitted to possess. Originally the three robes were made from discarded rags, symbolizing an ascetic monastic life free from secular attachments.
three robes and one begging bowl The only personal belongings that the precepts allow a monk to possess. They exemplify the austere life of the monkhood and the desire to divest oneself of worldly attachments in order to seek the way. See also three robes.
Three Sages Three wise men of ancient China. Lao Tzu, Confucius, and Yen Hui, Confucius’s foremost disciple.
three schools of southern China and seven schools of northern China T’ien-t’ai’s designation for the ten schools or major systems of comparative classification of the Buddhist sutras employed by various Buddhist teachers in China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period (the fifth through the sixth century). Though their systems differed, each held either the Flower Garland Sutra or the Nirvana Sutra to be supreme among the Buddha’s teachings. T’ien-t’ai refuted their conclusions and demonstrated the superiority of the Lotus Sutra over all the other sutras.
three schools of the south and seven schools of the north See three schools of southern China and seven schools of northern China.
Three Sovereigns Also called the Three Rulers. Fu Hsi, Shen Nung, and Huang Ti (Yellow Emperor), legendary rulers of ancient China. They are usually regarded as having invented fishing, farming, and medicine, respectively. In his writings, Nichiren Daishonin often refers to Shen Nung and Huang Ti as masters of medicine, and refers to the reigns of Fu Hsi and Shen Nung as an age in which an ideal society was realized.
three stages of worthiness Also, three grades of worthiness. Stages of practice in the Hinayana teachings. The first of the three stages of worthiness is the stage of five meditations—five meditative practices for eliminating greed, anger, foolishness, attachment to the idea of a permanent self, and distractedness of the mind. The second is the stage of respectively observing the objects of meditation, i.e., to meditate on each of the four objects of meditation—body, sensation, mind, and things—and to perceive body as impure, sensation as marked by suffering, mind as impermanent, and things as without self. The third is the stage of observing all the objects of meditation, i.e., the above four objects, as a whole. Along with the four good roots, the three stages of worthiness constitute the seven expedient means, also called the seven stages of worthiness. One who has mastered the seven expedient means enters the way of insight, the first of the three ways (the second being the way of practice, and the third, the way of the arhat). The seven expedient means are preparatory practices leading to the way of insight. The concept of three stages of worthiness also appears in Mahayana Buddhism, in which it refers to stages of bodhisattva practice.
three standards of comparison Three viewpoints from which T’ien-t’ai asserts the superiority of the Lotus Sutra over all the other sutras. The first standard is whether people of all capacities can attain Buddhahood through a particular sutra. The second standard is whether the process of teaching, that is, the process from planting the seed of Buddhahood in the lives of people through finally leading them to reap the fruit of Buddhahood, is revealed from beginning to end. The third standard is whether the original relationship between teacher and disciple is revealed. The term “teacher” refers to the Buddha. The Lotus Sutra reveals that Shakyamuni originally attained enlightenment in the distant past and that ever since he has been teaching his disciples.
three thousand or more volumes of the non-Buddhist scriptures An expression commonly used to refer to the entire body of the Confucian and Taoist scriptures. The number “three thousand or more” is found in Chinese classics. There are other similar expressions such as the three thousand and more volumes of non-Buddhist literature, the three thousand or more volumes of the Confucian and Taoist writings, etc.
three thousand realms in a single moment of life (Jpn ichinen-sanzen) A philosophical system established by T’ien-t’ai. The “three thousand realms” indicates the varying aspects and phases that life assumes at each moment. At each moment, life manifests one of the Ten Worlds. Each of these worlds possesses the potential for all ten within itself, thus making one hundred possible worlds. Each of these hundred worlds possesses the ten factors and operates within each of the three realms of existence, thus making three thousand realms.
three thousand rules of conduct Also, three thousand rules of behavior. Strict rules of discipline for monks set forth in the Hinayana teachings. Accounts differ concerning the significance of the figure of three thousand. According to one account, three thousand is arrived at by applying the two hundred and fifty precepts—the rules of discipline for fully ordained Hinayana monks—to each of the four activities of daily life: walking, standing, sitting, and lying. The resulting total of one thousand is then applied to each of the three existences of past, present, and future for a total of three thousand rules of conduct. According to another account, the figure “three thousand” is not intended to be literal but simply indicates a large number.
three treasures The three basic elements of Buddhism—the Buddha, the Law (the Buddha’s teachings), and the Order (community of believers).
Three Treatises school A reference to the Chinese San-lun school and the Japanese Sanron school (sanron being the Japanese pronunciation of san-lun). A school based on Nāgārjuna’s Treatise on the Middle Way and Treatise on the Twelve Gates and on Āryadeva’s One-Hundred-Verse Treatise. These three treatises were translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva, and their doctrines were later systematized by Chi-tsang. The Korean priest Ekan (Kor Hyekwan) is regarded as the first to have formally introduced the Three Treatises doctrine to Japan.
three True Word sutras The Mahāvairochana, Diamond Crown, and Susiddhikara sutras. These sutras are revered by the True Word school and Tendai Esotericism.
three truths The truths of non-substantiality, temporary existence, and the Middle Way—three phases of the truth formulated by T’ien-t’ai. The truth of non-substantiality means that all phenomena are non-substantial and in a state transcending the concepts of existence and nonexistence. The truth of temporary existence means that although non-substantial in nature, all things possess a temporary reality that is in constant flux. The truth of the Middle Way is that all phenomena are both non-substantial and temporary, yet are in essence neither.
three turnings of the wheel of the Law See thrice turned wheel of the Law.
three types of learning The three disciplines that practitioners of Buddhism should master. They are precepts, meditation, and wisdom and are said to encompass all aspects of Buddhist doctrine and practice.
three vehicles The teachings expounded for voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas. “Vehicle” means a teaching that carries one to a certain state of enlightenment. The term “three vehicles” is used in contrast to the “one vehicle,” or the vehicle that carries all people to Buddhahood. In the Lotus Sutra, the three vehicles are replaced by the one vehicle.
three virtues There are two definitions of these qualities possessed by a Buddha: (1) The virtues of sovereign, teacher, and parent. The virtue of sovereign is the power to protect all living beings, the virtue of teacher is the wisdom to instruct and lead them to enlightenment, and the virtue of parent means the compassion to nurture and support them. (2) The Dharma body, wisdom, and emancipation. The Dharma body is the truth that the Buddha has realized; wisdom is the capacity to realize this truth; and emancipation is the state of being free from the sufferings of birth and death.
three ways Also, three paths. Three stages of practice in the Hinayana teachings. The way of insight, the way of practice, and the way of the arhat, or the stage of one who has no more to learn. The way of insight is the stage at which one beholds the four noble truths; hence it is also called the way of beholding the truth. Those who have attained the three stages of worthiness and the four good roots enter the way of insight, where they dispel the illusions of thought and attain the stage of sagehood. They then proceed to the way of practice, where they sever the illusions of desire. The way of the arhat represents the highest stage of awakening that practitioners of the Hinayana teachings can attain. At this stage one is free from all illusions. The concept of three ways also applies to stages of Mahayana bodhisattva practice.
thrice turned wheel of the Law A division of the Buddha’s teachings into three categories, set forth by Chi-tsang, a systematizer of the doctrines of the Three Treatises school in China. The thrice turned wheel of the Law consists of the root teaching, the branch teaching, and the teaching that unites the branch teaching with the root teaching. The root teaching represents the teaching that directly reveals the Buddha’s enlightenment to bodhisattvas without employing expedient means. It corresponds to the one vehicle teaching of the Flower Garland Sutra. The branch teaching represents the three vehicle teaching, which the Buddha expounded in accordance with the capacity of his listeners. It corresponds to the teaching of the Āgama, Correct and Equal, and Wisdom sutras. The teaching that unites the branch teaching with the root teaching indicates the teaching that unites the three vehicles with the one vehicle teaching. It corresponds to the Lotus Sutra.
Thus Come One (Skt Tathāgata) One of the ten honorable titles of a Buddha, meaning one who has arrived from the world of truth. This title indicates that a Buddha embodies the fundamental truth of all phenomena and has grasped the law of causality spanning past, present, and future.
T’ien-t’ai (538–597) Referred to also as Chih-i, T’ien-t’ai Chih-che, the Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai, and the Great Teacher Chih-che. The founder of the T’ien-t’ai school in China. After studying at Mount Ta-su under Nan-yüeh, he became known for his profound lectures on the Lotus Sutra. He refuted the scriptural classifications formulated by the ten major Buddhist schools of his day, and classified all of Shakyamuni’s sutras into five periods and eight teachings, demonstrating the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra. His principal works, The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra, The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra, and Great Concentration and Insight, were all recorded and compiled by his successor, Chang-an. In Great Concentration and Insight, T’ien-t’ai sets forth the principle of three thousand realms in a single moment of life and the practice of meditation to realize it.
T’ien-t’ai, Mount A mountain in Chekiang Province in China where the Great Teacher T’ien-t’ai lived and the T’ien-t’ai school was based.
T’ien-t’ai’s three major works The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra, The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra, and Great Concentration and Insight. These three are T’ien-t’ai’s lectures recorded and compiled by his disciple Chang-an. Miao-lo later wrote the following commentaries on them: The Annotations on “The Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra,” The Annotations on “The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra,” and The Annotations on “Great Concentration and Insight.” Together, these six works in sixty volumes formed the doctrinal basis for the T’ien-t’ai school.
to (Jpn) A unit of volume equivalent to about 18 liters, about a half of one bushel.
Tō-ji The head temple of the Tō-ji branch of the True Word school, located in Kyoto in Japan. In 823 it was bestowed by the imperial court on Kōbō and became a center of esoteric practice.
Tokuitsu (n.d.) Also called Tokuichi. A priest of the Dharma Characteristics school in Japan during the late eighth and early ninth centuries. He and Dengyō dabated regarding the one vehicle doctrine and the three vehicle doctrine until Dengyō’s death.
transmigration with change and advance The kind of transmigration, or repeated rebirth, that voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas undergo on the way to emancipation. It is contrasted with “transmigration with differences and limitations.” Transmigration with change and advance means that one becomes free from transmigration with differences and limitations, or repeated rebirth in the realms of delusion, and advances to higher stages of practice in each rebirth until one attains emancipation.
transmigration with differences and limitations The transmigration, or repeated rebirth, of unenlightened beings among the six paths (the lower six of the Ten Worlds, from hell to the world of heavenly beings). In this endless cycle of rebirth among the six paths, living beings are said to be born with limited life spans and in different forms according to their karma. This kind of transmigration is contrasted with “transmigration with change and advance,” which refers to the transmigration of voice-hearers, cause-awakened ones, and bodhisattvas.
treasure tower A tower, or stupa, adorned with precious jewels or treasures. Such towers are described in many Buddhist scriptures. In Nichiren Daishonin’s writings, the treasure tower primarily indicates the tower of the Buddha Many Treasures that appears from beneath the earth in the “Treasure Tower” chapter of the Lotus Sutra. Nichiren Daishonin embodied it in the Gohonzon and also saw it as representing the life of a person who believes in the Gohonzon.
Treatise on the Consciousness-Only Doctrine, The A reference to The Treatise on the Establishment of the Consciousness-Only Doctrine, written by Dharmapāla, a prominent Consciousness-Only scholar, and translated into Chinese by Hsüan-tsang. Also a reference to one or another of Vasubandhu’s treatises on the Consciousness-Only doctrine, such as The Twenty-Stanza Treatise on the Consciousness-Only Doctrine and The Thirty-Stanza Treatise on the Consciousness-Only Doctrine, as well as to Chinese translations of these treatises. Dharmapāla’s Treatise on the Establishment of the Consciousness-Only Doctrine is a commentary on Vasubandhu’s Thirty-Stanza Treatise on the Consciousness-Only Doctrine. Twenty-Stanza Treatise and Thirty-Stanza Treatise were also translated into Chinese by Hsüan-tsang.
Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom, The A comprehensive commentary on the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, traditionally attributed to Nāgārjuna. Only the Chinese version translated by Kumārajīva exists today. The work explains the concepts of wisdom, non-substantiality, the bodhisattva ideal, and the six pāramitās, among others. It also incorporates concepts from the Lotus Sutra and other Mahayana sutras, and is considered an extremely important work of Mahayana thought in general.
Treatise on the Lotus Sutra, The A commentary by Vasubandhu on the Lotus Sutra. In this work, Vasubandhu asserts the superiority of the Lotus Sutra over all the other sutras in terms of the seven parables, three equalities, and ten peerlessnesses. According to Paramārtha’s account, in India more than fifty people wrote commentaries on the Lotus Sutra, but among them, only the commentary by Vasubandhu was brought to China and translated into Chinese.
Treatise on the Middle Way, The One of Nāgārjuna’s principal works, translated into Chinese by Kumārajīva, which develops the concept of non-substantiality and the practice of the Middle Way on the basis of the Wisdom sutras. Nāgārjuna’s idea of non-substantiality formed a major theoretical basis of Mahayana Buddhism.
Treatise on the Mind Aspiring for Enlightenment, The A work attributed to Nāgārjuna and translated by Pu-k’ung into Chinese. Another account attributes it not to Nāgārjuna but to Pu-k’ung himself. It teaches the importance of a mind that seeks enlightenment. Because the work distinguishes between esoteric and exoteric teachings, it is valued by the esoteric True Word school. Kōbō, the founder of the Japanese True Word school, quoted it frequently to assert the superiority of the esoteric teachings over the exoteric teachings, including the Lotus Sutra.
Treatise on the Stages of Yoga Practice, The A work attributed to either Maitreya or Asanga (around the fourth century) and translated into Chinese by Hsüan-tsang. One of the basic treatises of the Dharma Characteristics school, it elucidates seventeen stages through which the practitioner of the Consciousness-Only doctrine advances toward enlightenment.
Treatise on the Ten Stages of the Mind, The A work written around 830 by Kōbō, founder of the Japanese True Word school. In it, Kōbō places the mind of a believer in the Lotus Sutra and that of a believer in the Flower Garland Sutra in the eighth and the ninth stages, respectively. And he places the mind of a follower of the True Word teaching in the tenth, or highest, stage because such a person has understood the esoteric teaching.
Treatise on the Ten Stages Sutra school The Chinese Ti-lun school. A school founded on Vasubandhu’s Treatise on the Ten Stages Sutra. The school prospered in the Liang, Ch’en, and Sui dynasties but was absorbed by the Flower Garland school during the T’ang dynasty.
Treatise on the Treasure Vehicle of Buddhahood, The A work by Sāramati translated into Chinese by Ratnamati of the Northern Wei dynasty. It asserts that all beings possess the matrix of the Thus Come One or the Buddha nature, and that even icchantikas, those of incorrigible disbelief, can attain Buddhahood eventually. Tibetan tradition attributes this work to Maitreya. It is generally thought to have been written sometime around the end of the fourth century through the beginning of the fifth century.
Treatise on the Twelve Gates, The A work attributed to Nāgārjuna and translated into Chinese in 409 by Kumārajīva. Only the Chinese version is extant. It is one of the three treatises of the Three Treatises school, the other two being The Treatise on the Middle Way and The One-Hundred-Verse Treatise, and was widely studied in China and Japan. This work consists of twelve sections, each addressing a different subject. It explains the Mahayana doctrine of non-substantiality, concluding that all phenomena are non-substantial in nature.
Treatise Resolving Numerous Doubts, The A work by Huai-kan, a priest of the Chinese Pure Land school, written in the seventh century. The full title is The Treatise Resolving Numerous Doubts about the Pure Land Teachings. Huai-kan had been a priest of the Dharma Characteristics school, but later studied under the Pure Land patriarch Shan-tao. He died before finishing the work, and Huai-yün, another of Shan-tao’s disciples, completed it. Written in question-and-answer format, this treatise addresses questions about the Pure Land teachings from the standpoint of the Consciousness-Only doctrine of the Dharma Characteristics school.
Tripitaka master An honorific title given to those who were well versed in the three divisions of the Buddhist canon. It was often bestowed on eminent Chinese priests as well as on those monks from India and Central Asia who went to China and translated Buddhist scriptures into Chinese.
Tripitaka teaching (1) Tripitaka (Skt) means the three baskets or collections of sacred writings. The Tripitaka teaching is called so because it consists of the three divisions of the Buddhist canon—sutras, rules of discipline, and doctrinal treatises. (2) One of the four teachings of doctrine formulated by T’ien-t’ai. The teachings of this category are Hinayana. They aim at awakening people to the sufferings of birth and death in the threefold world, and urge practitioners to rid themselves of desire and attachment in order to escape the cycle of rebirth.
true aspect of all phenomena The ultimate truth or reality that permeates all phenomena and is in no way separate from them. The “Expedient Means” chapter of the Lotus Sutra defines this as the ten factors of life, and Nichiren Daishonin defines it as Nam-myoho-renge-kyo.
true Buddha The Buddha who has revealed his true identity.
true cause See true effect.
true effect Often refers to the enlightenment Shakyamuni attained numberless major world system dust particle kalpas ago. In contrast, the true cause means the cause for that enlightenment. From another viewpoint, the “true effect” indicates eternal Buddhahood, while the “true cause” indicates the eternal nine worlds, eternal meaning that both are always inherent in life.
true Mahayana The Lotus Sutra. Mahayana teachings are divided into provisional and true. The Lotus Sutra is designated as true Mahayana because it reveals Shakyamuni Buddha’s original attainment of enlightenment in the remote past and the possibility of all people’s enlightenment.
True Word school A reference to the Chinese Chen-yen school and the Japanese Shingon school. (Shingon, or true word, is the Japanese pronunciation of chen-yen.) The school that follows the esoteric doctrines and practices found in the Mahāvairochana and the Diamond Crown sutras. “True word” comes from the Sanskrit term “mantra” (secret word, mystic formula), indicating the words said to have been uttered by Mahāvairochana Buddha. The chanting of these secret words is one of the school’s basic esoteric rituals for the attainment of enlightenment. In the eighth century, three Indian monks introduced the esoteric teachings to China. Naturalized in China, they took the names Shan-wu-wei, Chin-kang-chih, and Pu-k’ung. These teachings were later introduced to Japan by Kōbō.
truth of non-substantiality See three truths.
truth of temporary existence See three truths.
truth of the Middle Way See three truths.
Tsukushi The provinces of Chikuzen and Chikugo in Kyushu, a southern island in Japan. The term was also used to indicate Kyushu in its entirety.
Ts’ung-i (1042–1091) A priest of the T’ien-t’ai school in China and author of many works including The Supplement to the Three Major Works on the Lotus Sutra. He asserted the supremacy of the T’ien-t’ai doctrine over the doctrines of the Zen, Flower Garland, and Dharma Characteristics schools.
Tsun-shih (964–1032) A priest of the T’ien-t’ai school in China. He enhanced the prestige of the T’ien-t’ai school and successfully petitioned the throne to have the school’s texts and commentaries included in the official Chinese Buddhist canon. He left behind a number of commentaries on both the T’ien-t’ai and Pure Land doctrines.
Tsushima A small island belonging to Japan lying about halfway between the southwest coast of Japan and the Korean Peninsula. In the tenth month of 1274, the Mongols launched a massive military attack against Tsushima and a nearby island, Iki.
Tung-ch’un A name for The Supplement to the Meanings of the Commentaries on the Lotus Sutra. A work by Chih-tu, a T’ien-t’ai priest of the T’ang dynasty in China, it was called Tung-ch’un after the place where the author lived.
Tushita heaven The Heaven of Satisfaction. The fourth of the six heavens in the world of desire. It is said that bodhisattvas are reborn there just before their last rebirth in the world, at which time they will attain Buddhahood. This heaven consists of an inner court and an outer court. The inner court is said to be the abode of Bodhisattva Maitreya.
Tu-shun (557–640) The founder of the Chinese Flower Garland school. In 574 he entered the priesthood and studied under Seng-chen at Yin-sheng-ssu temple. Later he lived on a mountain called Chung-nan-shan and propagated the Flower Garland teaching, receiving support from Emperor T’ai-tsung of the T’ang dynasty. His successor was Chih-yen.
twelve divisions of the Buddhist scriptures See twelve divisions of the scriptures.
twelve divisions of the scriptures Also, twelve divisions of the Buddhist scriptures or twelve divisions of the sutras. A classification of Shakyamuni Buddha’s teachings according to their content and style of presentation. Often used in the same sense as “the eighty thousand teachings” to indicate the entire body of the Buddha’s teachings. The twelve divisions are (1) sutra, teachings in prose; (2) geya, restatements of sutra in verse; (3) vyākarana, the Buddha’s predictions of the enlightenment of disciples; (4) gātha, teachings set forth by the Buddha in verse; (5) udāna, teachings preached by the Buddha spontaneously without request or query from his disciples; (6) nidāna, descriptions of the purpose, cause, and occasion of propounding teachings and rules of monastic discipline; (7) avadāna, tales of previous lives of persons other than the Buddha; (8) itivrittaka, discourses beginning with the words “This is what the World-Honored One said” (according to another definition, stories that describe previous lives of the Buddha’s disciples and bodhisattvas); (9) jātaka, stories of the Buddha’s previous lives; (10) vaipulya, expansion of doctrine; (11) adbhutadharma, descriptions of marvelous events that concern the Buddha or his disciples (also applied to descriptions that praise the great merit and power of the Buddha and his disciples); and (12) upadesha, discourses on the Buddha’s teachings. There are also various lists of nine divisions taken from among these twelve.
twelve divisions of the sutras See twelve divisions of the scriptures.
twelve great vows The vows that the Buddha Medicine Master made while still engaged in bodhisattva practice, according to the Medicine Master Sutra. They encompass vows to enlighten all living beings, cure their illnesses, and free them from suffering.
twelve-linked chain of causation Also, twelve-linked chain of dependent origination. An early doctrine of Buddhism showing the causal relationship between ignorance and the sufferings of aging and death. The first link in the chain is ignorance. Then ignorance causes action; action causes consciousness; consciousness causes name and form; name and form cause the six sense organs; the six sense organs cause contact; contact causes sensation; sensation causes desire; desire causes attachment; attachment causes existence; existence causes birth; and birth causes aging and death.
twelve sense fields The six sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, and mind) and their corresponding six objects (color and form, sound, odor, taste, texture, and phenomena). The contact of the six sense organs with the six objects gives rise to the six consciousnesses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought.
twenty-eight constellations Celestial houses of heavenly bodies as conceived in ancient India and China. They had names such as Chitrā (Chin Chiao) and Anurādhā (Chin Fang). The twenty-eight constellations, or the twenty-eight divisions of the sky, derive from the lunar mansions in which the moon was considered to stay on successive nights.
twenty-eight patriarchs of India In the doctrine of the Zen school in China and Japan, the patriarchs of the Zen teaching in India who inherited and successively transmitted Shakyamuni Buddha’s enlightenment down through Bodhidharma, the founder of the Chinese Zen school. Zen traditionally holds that the content of that transmission is a teaching that Shakyamuni Buddha communicated from “mind to mind” to Mahākāshyapa and did not expound orally. According to that tradition, the twenty-eight patriarchs are (1) Mahākāshyapa, (2) Ānanda, (3) Shānavāsa, (4) Upagupta, (5) Dhritaka, (6) Mikkaka, (7) Vasumitra, (8) Buddhananda, (9) Buddhamitra, (10) Pārshva, (11) Punyayashas, (12) Ashvaghosha, (13) Kapimala, (14) Nāgārjuna, (15) Āryadeva, (16) Rāhulabhadra (also Rāhulatā or Rāhulata), (17) Samghanandi, (18) Samghayashas, (19) Kumārata, (20) Jayata, (21) Vasubandhu, (22) Manorhita, (23) Haklenayashas, (24) Āryasimha, (25) Vāsiasita, (26) Punyamitra, (27) Punyatāra, and (28) Bodhidharma.
twenty-five preparatory exercises Practices to be undertaken in preparation for entering meditation on the truth of life. These preliminary practices were set forth in Great Concentration and Insight by T’ien-t’ai, including the regulation of one’s daily life by preparing the precepts and obtaining the appropriate food and clothing.
twenty-five realms Also, twenty-five realms of existence. Subdivisions of the threefold world in which living beings repeat the cycle of birth and death. They consist of fourteen realms in the world of desire, seven in the world of form, and four in the world of formlessness. The realms in the world of desire comprise the four lower worlds (the four evil paths of hell, hungry spirits, animals, and asuras); the four continents surrounding Mount Sumeru, which include Jambudvīpa; and the six heavens of desire. The seven realms in the world of form are the Mahābrahman heaven (here counted as distinct from the first meditation heaven), the four meditation heavens, the heaven of no thought, and the realm of the Five Heavens of Purity (taken as one realm). The world of formlessness has four immaterial realms: the realm of boundless empty space, the realm of boundless consciousness, the realm of nothingness, and the realm of neither thought nor no thought.
twenty-four successors Those who successively inherited the lineage of Shakyamuni’s Buddhism and propagated it in the Former Day of the Law. They are (1) Mahākāshyapa, (2) Ānanda, (3) Madhyāntika, (4) Shānavāsa, (5) Upagupta, (6) Dhritaka, (7) Mikkaka, (8) Buddhananda, (9) Buddhamitra, (10) Pārshva, (11) Punyayashas, (12) Ashvaghosha, (13) Kapimala, (14) Nāgārjuna, (15) Āryadeva, (16) Rāhulabhadra (also Rāhulatā or Rāhulata), (17) Samghanandi, (18) Samghayashas, (19) Kumārata, (20) Jayata, (21) Vasubandhu, (22) Manorhita, (23) Haklenayashas, and (24) Āryasimha.
two hundred and fifty precepts Rules of discipline to be observed by fully ordained Buddhist monks.
two storehouses The summation of the teachings expounded for persons of the two vehicles, and that of the teachings expounded for bodhisattvas. The former corresponds to Hinayana teachings such as the four noble truths and the twelve-linked chain of causation. The latter indicates the Mahayana teachings such as the six pāramitās.
two vehicles The vehicles or teachings that lead voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones to their respective levels of enlightenment. The vehicle of voice-hearers was intended to lead them to the state of arhat via the teaching of the four noble truths; the vehicle of cause-awakened ones leads them to the awakening to the truths of impermanence and of causal relationship via the teaching of the twelve-linked chain of causation.
Two-Volumed Sutra Another title of the Buddha Infinite Life Sutra. The Buddha Infinite Life Sutra is called so because it consists of two volumes. See also Buddha Infinite Life Sutra.
Tz’u-en (632–682) Also known as K’uei-chi. The founder of the Dharma Characteristics school in China. One of the outstanding disciples of Hsüan-tsang, he collaborated with his teacher on the translation of many important texts and wrote several commentaries on the Consciousness-Only doctrine.