eight emancipations Emancipation from the view that the body is pure, from the view that the outside world is pure, from illusions, from the view that matter exists, from the view that consciousness has limits, from the view that a thing has its own property, from the view that thought exists or that thought does not exist, and from the view that mentality exists in any sense.
eight kinds of beings See eight kinds of guardians.
eight kinds of guardians Another term for the eight kinds of nonhuman beings. Beings that protect Buddhism: gods, dragons, demons called yakshas, gods of music called gandharvas, belligerent demons called asuras, garudas (birds that prey on dragons), kimnaras (gods with beautiful voices), and mahoragas (snake-shaped gods).
eight precepts Precepts observed by lay believers on specific days of the month: (1) not to take life, (2) not to steal, (3) to refrain from all sexual activity, (4) not to lie, (5) not to drink intoxicants, (6) not to wear cosmetics or ornaments or to watch dancing or listen to singing, (7) not to sleep on a wide or elevated bed, and (8) not to eat after the noon hour.
eighty characteristics Extraordinary features that only buddhas and bodhisattvas possess. There are various explanations of the nature of the eighty characteristics; some of them duplicate the thirty-two features.
emptiness (Skt śūnyatā, Ch kong, J kū) Also void, the underlying reality that unites all being, according to the doctrine of nondualism in Mahayana Buddhism.
evil paths of existence The three lowest of the six paths or realms in which unenlightened beings transmigrate. They are the realms of hell, hungry spirits, and beasts. Sometimes the realm of the asuras is included to make four evil paths.
expedient means (Skt upāya, Ch fangbian, J hōben) A device or temporary means adopted in order to relieve suffering and lead people to enlightenment, often by offering provisional teachings as a means of guiding them to the truth. It is the title of the second chapter of the Lotus Sutra.