Bhadraruchi ［賢愛論師］ (n.d.) (; Ken’ai-ronji): A Mahayana Buddhist monk of western India. According to The Record of the Western Regions, Hsüan-tsang’s record of his travels through Central Asia and India during the seventh century, he bested a Brahman called the Great Arrogant Brahman in a debate in Mālava, an ancient kingdom in India. The Great Arrogant Brahman was extremely learned and had more than one thousand disciples. He made four statues—one each of the gods Maheshvara, Vishnu, and Nārāyana, and one of the Buddha—and used them as the pillars of his preaching platform, asserting that his wisdom far surpassed that of these four. Hearing this, Bhadraruchi challenged him to debate and won. Thereupon the king of Mālava realized that he had been deceived by the Brahman into believing his teaching and sentenced him to death. Bhadraruchi petitioned the king to let the Brahman live, and he was spared. Nevertheless, the Brahman bore a grudge against Bhadraruchi, slandering him and the Mahayana teachings, and for this reason he is said to have fallen into hell alive.