illusions of thought and desire ［見思惑］ ( kenji-waku): Also, delusions of thought and desire. Errors or afflictions of perception and emotion that cause people to suffer in the lower realms or states of existence described as the six paths and the threefold world. People of the two vehicles are said to rid themselves of these illusions and gain freedom from rebirth in the threefold world. In general, the illusions of thought are regarded as distorted perceptions of reality, and the illusions of desire as base inborn inclinations such as greed, anger, and arrogance: (1) In the Dharma Analysis Treasury (Chin Chü-she; Kusha) school, the illusions of thought are described as those arising from ignorance of the four noble truths, and the illusions of desire as those arising from attachment. (2) In the Consciousness-Only school, the illusions of thought are regarded as those caused by erroneous teachers and misleading doctrines, and the illusions of desire as those inherent in life. (3) In the T’ien-t’ai school, illusions of thought and desire are one of three categories of illusion, the other two being illusions innumerable as particles of dust and sand and illusions about the true nature of existence.