I-hsing ［一行］ (683–727) (PY Yixing; Ichigyō): A Chinese priest of Esoteric Buddhism and a disciple of Shan-wu-wei ( Shubhakarasimha). He assisted Shan-wu-wei in translating the Sanskrit version of the Mahāvairochana Sutra into Chinese and compiled his teacher’s oral teachings as The Annotations on the Mahāvairochana Sutra. This commentary is highly esteemed by the True Word (Shingon) school, a school of Esoteric Buddhism in Japan. I-hsing wrote some twenty works on Esoteric Buddhism and was also well versed in the Zen (Chin Ch’an) teaching, the T’ien-t’ai teaching, and the vinaya (rules of monastic discipline), as well as Taoism, mathematics, astronomy, and calendrical studies. Dengyō (767–822), the founder of the Japanese Tendai school, in defense of the T’ien-t’ai school’s doctrines, later criticized elements of I-hsing’s translations and writings as containing important errors. He argued that I-hsing had incorporated key elements of the T’ien-t’ai school’s teachings into his Chinese descriptions of the True Word doctrine and on this basis asserted the supremacy of True Word (in Japan, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism was equated with the True Word school, though the school itself originated in Japan).