Lankāvatāra Sutra ［楞伽経］ (; Chin Leng-ch’ieh-ching; Ryōga-kyō): A Mahayana sutra that discusses the Consciousness-Only doctrine, especially the ālaya-consciousness, and the inherent potential for Buddhahood. The Sanskrit text of the Lankāvatāra Sutra is thought to have been composed around c.e. 400. It represents the integration of two doctrines—that of the matrix of the Thus Come One and the Consciousness-Only doctrine—and asserts that all people possess the matrix of the Thus Come One, or the potential for Buddhahood. It equates the matrix of the Thus Come One with the ālaya-consciousness. The sutra takes the form of a discourse by Shakyamuni Buddha on Mount Lankā, the actual location of which is unknown. Some scholars identify Lankā with Sri Lanka, while others place it in southern or central India. In addition to the Sanskrit manuscript and two Tibetan translations, there are three extant Chinese versions: (1) one translated in 443 by Gunabhadra, a monk from central India; (2) another, in 513 by Bodhiruchi, a monk from northern India; and (3) a third produced between 700 and 704 by Shikshānanda, a monk of Khotan in Central Asia. A fourth, actually the earliest version, translated in the early fifth century by Dharmaraksha, a monk from central India, is lost. An important text for the early Zen (Ch’an) school in China, the Lankāvatāra Sutra was related to the development of the Zen school during the T’ang dynasty (618–907). Many commentaries on the sutra were produced during the T’ang, Sung (960–1279), and Ming (1368–1644) dynasties.