world of hell ［地獄界］ ( jigoku-kai): The lowest of the Ten Worlds. Buddhist scriptures describe various kinds of hells such as the eight hot hells and the eight cold hells. Viewed as a state of life, it is a condition of extreme suffering in which one is crushed by agony and unable to do anything about it. Unable to move or act freely, one feels violent rage against one’s own powerlessness. While the fight to continue living is natural, the agony of hell saps one’s vital energy and brings death closer. Hence in The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind, Nichiren describes “rage” as characterizing the world of hell. See also hell.