Wu-t’ai, Mount ［五台山］ (PY Wutai-shan; Godai-san): Also known as Mount Ch’ing-liang. A mountain located in the Wu-t’ai mountain range in Shansi Province in China. This mountain has long been identified with Mount Clear and Cool (Ch’ing-liang) where, according to the Flower Garland Sutra, Bodhisattva Manjushrī dwells. It was counted as foremost of the four sacred mountains related to Buddhism in China, the other three being Mount P’u-t’o, which is associated with Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds; Mount Chiu-hua, with Bodhisattva Earth Repository; and Mount E-mei, with Bodhisattva Universal Worthy. Mount Wu-t’ai prospered as a center of Chinese Buddhism where eminent priests from throughout the country as well as from Central Asia, Korea, and Japan studied, practiced, and lectured. In 766 Pu-k’ung and Han-kuang made it a center of Esoteric Buddhism, building two temples there. In 770 Fa-chao, a noted priest of the Pure Land teachings, engaged there in the practice of reciting the name of Amida Buddha. Ch’eng-kuan (738–839), the fourth patriarch of the Flower Garland (Hua-yen) school, stayed at Ta-hua-yen-ssu temple on Mount Wu-tai and lectured on the Flower Garland Sutra. The mountain was a center of the Flower Garland school and also a center of the Chinese Zen (Ch’an) school. Among the Japanese priests who made a pilgrimage there were Gembō (d. 746), Jikaku (794–864), Chōnen (d. 1016), and Jōjin (1011–1081). Over the centuries, more than one hundred temples are said to have been built on the flat summit of this mountain. Beginning in the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), lamaseries, or temples of Tibetan Buddhism, were also built there.