Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra ［報恩経］ (Chin Pao-en-ching; Hō’on-kyō): A sutra that defines the repaying of moral obligations from the standpoint of Mahayana Buddhism. Brahmans criticized Shakyamuni Buddha as unfilial for leaving his parents and entering a religious life. The Repaying Debts of Gratitude Sutra refutes this criticism with the argument that by renouncing the secular world and awakening to the truth that leads all people to Buddhahood one can truly repay all one’s obligations to others. The Chinese translation is said to date from the Later Han dynasty (25–220). The translator of this sutra is unknown, however, and the Sanskrit manuscript is not extant.