Ryōnin ［良忍］ (1073–1132): A priest who spread the Pure Land teachings before Hōnen founded the Pure Land (Jōdo) school in Japan. He is regarded as the founder of the Interfusing Nembutsu (Yūzū Nembutsu) school. A native of Owari Province, in his childhood he went to Enryaku-ji, the head temple of the Tendai school on Mount Hiei, to become a priest and study the Tendai doctrine. Later he moved to Ōhara in Kyoto and there built two temples, Raigō-in and Jōrenge-in. He devoted himself to the practice of the Nembutsu, or recitation of Amida Buddha’s name, to attain rebirth in Amida’s Pure Land. In 1117 he asserted that he had received instruction directly from Amida Buddha, the gist of which was that one’s personal practice of the Nembutsu influences all people, and that others’ practice of the Nembutsu influences oneself; this mutual interaction works to bring about the rebirth of all people in the Pure Land. The Interfusing Nembutsu school regards this event as the origin of the school. Thereafter Ryōnin propagated this teaching and encouraged the people to recite the name of Amida Buddha, thus winning numerous converts. Ryōnin is also known for reviving and systematizing the Tendai school’s tradition of musical recitation of sutras, called shōmyō in Japanese.