Ryūkan ［隆寛］ (1148–1227): Also known as Kaikū or Muga. A priest of the Pure Land (Jōdo) school in Japan; a disciple of Hōnen, the school’s founder. Because he lived at Chōraku-ji temple in Kyoto, the doctrinal lineage he is regarded as having founded is known as the Chōraku-ji branch of the Pure Land school. Ryūkan first studied the Tendai doctrine at Enryaku-ji temple on Mount Hiei. Later he was attracted by the Pure Land teachings and became a disciple of Hōnen. After Hōnen’s death, he wrote A Clarification of “The Nembutsu Chosen above All” in rebuttal to A Refutation of “The Nembutsu Chosen above All” by Jōshō, a Tendai priest of Enryaku-ji. This incurred the wrath of Enryaku-ji priests and persecution by the shogunate. He was exiled to Ōshū in northern Japan in 1227, but died en route at Iiyama in Sagami Province. His teaching advocates the doctrine of many-time recitation, the belief that one should recite the Nembutsu, or the name of the Buddha Amida, as many times as possible to ensure rebirth in the Pure Land. This teaching stands in opposition to the doctrine of one-time recitation advocated by Kōsai, another disciple of Hōnen, which holds that a single recitation is sufficient. Ryūkan wrote A Comparison of One-time Recitation and Many-time Recitation.