Nāgārjuna ［竜樹］ (n.d.) (; Ryūju): A Mahayana scholar of southern India, thought to have lived between the years 150 and 250. Born to a Brahman family, he first studied Hinayana Buddhism but later converted to Mahayana. According to The Biography of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna, he converted to Mahayana while studying the Mahayana teachings under an elderly monk in the Himalayas. Thereafter Nāgārjuna traveled throughout India to master all the Mahayana sutras. The Biography of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna states that he obtained a most profound and secret scripture in the palace of the dragon king, and realized the Law by studying this scripture and engaging in meditation. Nāgārjuna wrote many important treatises on a great number of Mahayana sutras and organized the theoretical foundation of Mahayana thought, thus making an inestimable contribution to its development. He is especially known for his systematization of the doctrine of non-substantiality. His treatises include The Treatise on the Middle Way, The Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom, The Commentary on the Ten Stages Sutra, and The Treatise on the Twelve Gates. His philosophy was called the Mādhyamika (Middle Way) doctrine. Since his doctrine is integral to Mahayana Buddhism, Nāgārjuna is revered in Japan as the “founder of the eight schools”—the Dharma Analysis Treasury (Kusha), Establishment of Truth (Jōjitsu), Precepts (Ritsu), Dharma Characteristics (Hossō), Three Treatises (Sanron), Flower Garland (Kegon), Tendai, and True Word (Shingon). In his later years, he lived in Bhramaragiri on the upper reaches of the Kistna River and trained disciples, transferring the teachings to Āryadeva. Nāgārjuna is counted as the thirteenth of Shakyamuni’s twenty-three, or the fourteenth of his twenty-four, successors.