Northern school of Zen ［北宗禅］ ( Hokushū Zen): One of the two schools formed by the first schism in the Zen (Ch’an) school in China. The other school is called the Southern school of Zen. The fifth Chinese Zen patriarch Hung-jen had two capable disciples. One was Shen-hsiu (606–706), who propagated Zen in northern China and upheld the traditional doctrine of gradual enlightenment. His school became the Northern school of Zen. The other disciple was Hui-neng (638–713), who became the sixth patriarch and spread Zen in southern China. He formulated and taught the doctrine of sudden enlightenment (also known as abrupt, or immediate, enlightenment), and his school came to be called the Southern school of Zen. The Northern school rapidly declined, while Hui-neng produced many able disciples and his Southern school became the mainstream of Chinese Zen. The Japanese Zen schools derive from the Southern school.