Upāli ［優婆離］ (, Pali; Ubari): One of Shakyamuni’s ten major disciples, known as foremost in observing the precepts. He was a barber at the court of Kapilavastu, a small state near the present-day Indian–Nepalese border. When Shakyamuni Buddha returned home to Kapilavastu several years after his enlightenment, Upāli was among the many people there who converted to his teachings. Other converts included Shakyamuni’s cousin Ānanda, his half brother Nanda, and his son Rāhula. According to tradition, Upāli was well versed in the causes and circumstances that had brought about the prescription of the vinaya, or rules of monastic discipline. At the First Buddhist Council held to compile the Buddha’s teachings, Upāli is said to have recited the vinaya, while Ānanda recited the sutras.