upāsaka ［優婆塞］ (, Pali; ubasoku): Buddhist laymen. Those who have faith in Buddhism, revere and serve the three treasures of the Buddha, his teachings, and the Buddhist Order, and observe the five precepts that forbid killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, and drinking intoxicants, yet who do not renounce secular or family ties to live as monks. Upāsaka originally meant to serve or one who serves. Buddhist laywomen who, like upāsaka, acknowledge allegiance to the three treasures and observe the five precepts are called upāsikā in Sanskrit. These terms were used outside of Buddhism as well to refer to lay practitioners of other Indian religious traditions. Bhikshu (monks) and bhikshunī (nuns), upāsaka and upāsikā, constitute what are known as the four kinds of believers within the Order. In Chinese translations of the sutras, upāsaka and upāsikā were interpreted as “men of pure faith” and “women of pure faith” respectively.