old translations ［旧訳］ ( kuyaku): Also, older translations. Chinese translations of the Buddhist sutras and treatises produced before those of Hsüan-tsang (602–664). “Old translations” is contrasted with “new translations,” those translations produced by Hsüan-tsang and persons after him. The works of Kumārajīva and Paramārtha belong to the group of old translations. It is generally held that the old translations tend to be more interpretative, yet readily comprehensible, while the new translations tend to be more literal yet less accessible. In actuality, however, the quality of any given translation depends mostly on the understanding and capability of its translators, rather than to which of these two categories it belongs.