Outside-the-Mountain school ［山外派］ (Chin Shan-wai-p’ai; Sangai-ha): A reference to the Shan-wai school, a branch of the T’ien-t’ai school in China. In the tenth century, the T’ien-t’ai school divided into two branches. One, headed by Chih-yüan and Ch’ing-chao, was called the Outside-the-Mountain school. This was a pejorative epithet applied by the other school, which called itself the Mountain (Chin Shan-chia; Sange) school. The implication was that they, the Mountain school, were within the legitimate stream of Mount T’ien-t’ai. The name “outside-the-mountain” suggested departure from the orthodox T’ien-t’ai doctrine, though it is also thought to have indicated geographical location, since that school’s center was in Ch’ien-t’ang outside Mount T’ien-t’ai. Each of the two schools produced a number of treatises and commentaries criticizing the position of the other. The dispute between them continued for decades, but the Outside-the-Mountain school gradually declined.