Gunavarman ［求那跋摩］ (367–431) (; Gunabatsuma): A monk of Kashmir and a translator of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. He was a member of a royal family, but entered the Buddhist Order at age twenty and mastered the three divisions of the Buddhist canon. At age thirty, upon the king’s death he was offered the throne but refused it. He traveled to various places to preach, including Java, where he played an important role in establishing Buddhism. He went to China in 424. Emperor Wen of the Liu Sung dynasty heard of Gunavarman’s fame and invited him to his capital, Chien-k’ang, in 431. There Gunavarman lectured on the Lotus Sutra, the Ten Stages Sutra, and other sutras. He translated altogether ten works in eighteen volumes.