Kōsai ［幸西］ (1163–1247): Also known as Jōkaku-bō. A priest of the Pure Land (Jōdo) school in Japan and a disciple of the school’s founder Hōnen. He first studied the Tendai doctrine on Mount Hiei, but converted to the Pure Land teachings in 1198. He advocated the doctrine of one-time recitation of the Nembutsu. This doctrine states that rebirth in the Pure Land is assured with a single recitation of the Nembutsu—the invocation of Amida Buddha’s name with the phrase Namu Amida Butsu (“Homage to Amida Buddha”); therefore, there is no need for repeated recitation or chanting of this phrase. Kōsai is regarded as the originator of the doctrine of one-time recitation. In contrast, Ryūkan, another disciple of Hōnen, taught the many-time recitation of the Nembutsu. In 1206, when disciples of Hōnen held a prayer gathering at Shishigatani in Kyoto, two court ladies who served the Retired Emperor Gotoba attended the ceremony and decided to become nuns of the Pure Land school. This angered the retired emperor, who punished Hōnen and his main disciples. Four disciples were executed, and Hōnen was exiled. In the second month of the next year, Kōsai was exiled to the island of Shikoku, but later pardoned. In 1227, when the Pure Land school was again persecuted, Kōsai was exiled to the island of Iki. Later he was pardoned and propagated the Pure Land teachings in Shimōsa Province.