Chandaka ［車匿］ (; Pali Channa; Shanoku): A servant of Shakyamuni before he renounced secular life. The night Shakyamuni, as Prince Siddhārtha, left the palace of Kapilavastu to embark on a religious life, Chandaka accompanied him, holding his horse, Kanthaka, by the bridle. It is said that, when Shakyamuni had gone some distance to the south, he cut his hair and handed over his crown and a bright jewel in his topknot to Chandaka, whom he sent back to Kapilavastu with the message that he would not return until he had fulfilled his objective. After Shakyamuni attained enlightenment, Chandaka became his disciple. Being arrogant by nature, however, he had trouble getting along with the other monks. After Shakyamuni’s death, Chandaka followed Ānanda, one of the Buddha’s ten major disciples, and attained the state of arhat.