complete precepts ［具足戒］ ( gusoku-kai): Also, comprehensive precepts, full commandments, or complete commandments. The complete set of rules of monastic discipline for the monk ( bhikshu) and for the nun (bhikshunī). The total number of rules or commandments for monks is 250, and those for nuns, 348 (in many Buddhist scriptures stated as 500 indicating a large number). The Buddhist ordination rite in which a novice vows to observe the complete precepts as a monk or nun is called upasampadā in Sanskrit and Pali. Before this point, there are levels of precept observance: A lay practitioner vows to observe the five precepts, and a novice who has renounced secular life and entered monastic life must observe the ten precepts. A novice who vows to observe the complete precepts is ordained as a full-fledged monk or nun. In the ordination ceremony, the candidate takes an oath to observe the complete precepts in the presence of ten monks known as the “three leaders and seven witnesses.” The three leaders are (1) a preceptor (also called teacher of discipline), or a monk who administers the precepts to the candidate; (2) a monk who acts as a chairperson, reciting words that describe the intent of the ceremony; and (3) a monk who examines whether the applicant is qualified for admission. The candidate is required to be twenty years of age or over, with no disease, and no faults that would prevent admission into the monkhood. He or she is also required to have undergone the instruction and training needed by a novice.