Chih-yen (1) ［智厳］ (n.d.) (PY Zhiyan; Chigon): A Chinese priest who was active as a translator from the fourth through the fifth century. Chih-yen went to Kashmir to seek Buddhist scriptures and study Buddhist doctrines. He returned to Ch’ang-an with Buddhabhadra and translated fourteen sutras. Later he went again to India, where he died.
(2) ［智儼］ (602–668) (PY Zhiyan; Chigon): The second patriarch of the Flower Garland (Hua-yen) school in China. At age twelve, he became a disciple of Tu-shun, the founder of the school. He first studied various Hinayana and Mahayana texts such as The Summary of the Mahayana, The Fourfold Rules of Discipline, The Treatise on the Establishment of Truth, and the Nirvana Sutra, but later devoted himself solely to the study of the Flower Garland Sutra and the Flower Garland doctrines. In his later years, he lived at Yün-hua-ssu temple in Ch’ang-an, where he propagated the Flower Garland doctrines. His disciple Fa-tsang is known as the systematizer of the Flower Garland doctrine.