Ch’eng-kuan ［澄観］ (738–839) (PY Chengguan; Chōkan): Also known as the Teacher of the Nation Ch’ing-liang. The fourth patriarch of the Flower Garland (Hua-yen) school in China. At age eleven, he renounced secular life and began studying Mahayana Buddhism. In 775 he practiced the T’ien-t’ai meditation under Miao-lo and later studied the doctrines of various schools under their teachers. He became fascinated with the Flower Garland teaching and lectured on the Flower Garland Sutra at Ta-hua-yen-ssu temple on Mount Wu-t’ai. He produced a number of commentaries on the sutra, including The Annotations on the Flower Garland Sutra. Because of his contribution to the propagation of the Flower Garland doctrine, the emperor granted him the title Teacher of the Nation Ch’ing-liang. Ch’ing-liang is another name for Mount Wu-t’ai.