provisional manifestation ［権化］ ( gonge): Also, temporary manifestation, manifestation in temporal form. The provisional transformation of a Buddha or a bodhisattva into various forms in order to benefit living beings and lead them from suffering to enlightenment. The “Perceiver of the World’s Sounds” (twenty-fifth) chapter of the Lotus Sutra describes the bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds as appearing in thirty-three different forms in order to save the people. The concept of a deity incarnating into various forms is found in Hindu or Vedic belief well before Buddhism; this kind of incarnation is called avatāra in Sanskrit, from which derives the English word avatar. The ten avatars of the god Vishnu, which include a fish, a tortoise, Rāma (a hero of Hinduism), Krishna, and even the Buddha, are well known. In Japan, belief that deities of Japan were provisional manifestations of Buddhas or bodhisattvas began to spread in the late Heian period (794–1185).