Painfully Acquired ［苦得］ ( Kutoku): A follower of Jainism mentioned in the Chinese version of the Mahāparinirvāna Sutra. The sutra describes Painfully Acquired as having lived at Rājagriha, the capital of the kingdom of Magadha, India, in the time of Shakyamuni Buddha and having misled the monk Sunakshatra, Shakyamuni’s disciple and son. Sunakshatra revered him as being supreme among arhats. His Sanskrit name is unknown. In Chinese Buddhist texts, Painfully Acquired is also the name of a non-Buddhist school that emphasized rigorous asceticism as the cause of emancipation; this school is identified with Jainism.