Paramārtha ［真諦］ (499–569) (; Shindai): Also known as Kulanātha. A translator of Buddhist scriptures and the founder of the Summary of the Mahayana (She-lun) school in China. Originally from western India, he was welcomed by Emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty and traveled to various parts of China to teach Buddhism. His Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures are said to have amounted to either 64 texts in 278 volumes or 49 texts in 142 volumes, which include The Summary of the Mahayana, The Treatise on the Buddha Nature, and The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana. Paramārtha is counted as one of the four great translators of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, the other three being Kumārajīva, Hsüan-tsang, and Pu-k’ung.