pārājika ［波羅夷］ (, Pali; harai): The gravest offenses proscribed by monastic rules of discipline, the commission of which may result in expulsion from the Buddhist Order. Pārājika is the first section of the vinaya, or monastic rules. There are four pārājikas for monks, and eight pārājikas for nuns. The four pārājikas, also known as the four major offenses or the four grave prohibitions, are killing, stealing, having sexual relations, and lying (in particular, lying about one’s level of insight or spiritual attainment). The eight pārājikas, also known as the eight major offenses, consist of the four grave offenses plus those of touching a male, improper association with a male, concealing the misbehavior of another, and following a monk who goes against monastic rules.