devil ［魔］ (, Pali māra; ma): A personification of evil. The Sanskrit word māra also means killing, death, pestilence, or obstacle, and in China it was translated as “robber of life.” In Buddhist scriptures, Māra is the name of a devil king who rules over numerous devils who are his retinue. He is described as the great evil enemy of Shakyamuni Buddha and his teachings. When Shakyamuni entered into meditation under the bodhi tree, Māra attempted to prevent him from attaining enlightenment but failed. After Shakyamuni’s enlightenment, he also tried to induce the Buddha to abandon his intent to preach. Māra is identified with the devil king of the sixth heaven. The sixth heaven is the highest heaven in the world of desire, or the Heaven of Freely Enjoying Things Conjured by Others, and its ruler delights in manipulating others to submit to his will. In Buddhism, devils indicate those functions that block or hinder people’s effort to complete their Buddhist practice.