dhūta practice ［頭陀・頭陀行］ (, Pali; zuda or zuda-gyō): A discipline or ascetic practice to purify one’s body and mind and remove one’s desire for food, clothing, and shelter. The Sanskrit word dhūta means “shaken off,” “removed,” or “abandoned.” In Buddhism, it indicates shaking off the dust and defilement of desires. Buddhism sets forth twelve disciplines to obtain release from ties to food, clothing, and dwelling. They are known as the twelvefold dhūta practice or twelve dhūtas. Among Shakyamuni’s ten major disciples, Mahākāshyapa was known as foremost in dhūta, or ascetic, practice. In the “Treasure Tower” (eleventh) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, Shakyamuni says: “This sutra is hard to uphold; if one can uphold it even for a short while I will surely rejoice and so will the other Buddhas. A person who can do this wins the admiration of the Buddhas. . . . This is what is called observing the precepts and practicing dhūta.” The Twelvefold Dhuta Practice Sutra, a Chinese translation by Gunabhadra (394–468), gives a detailed explanation of the twelvefold dhūta practice. See also twelvefold dhūta practice.