twelvefold dhūta practice ［十二頭陀行］ ( jūni-zuda-gyō): Also, twelve dhūtas. Twelve disciplines set forth in The Commentary on the Ten Stages Sutra, the Twelvefold Dhūta Practice Sutra, and other Buddhist texts. The Sanskrit word dhūta means “shaken off,” “removed,” or “abandoned.” In Buddhism, it indicates shaking off or removing oneself from the dust and defilement of earthly desires. Accordingly, dhūta practice means practice to purify the body and mind, and to remove the desire for food, clothing, and shelter. The twelvefold dhūta practice is (1) to live in a quiet place remote from human habitation, such as a forest, (2) to seek food only by begging for alms, (3) to beg for alms from poor and rich households alike, (4) to eat only once a day, (5) to refrain from overeating, (6) to drink neither fruit juice nor the sap of trees after the noon meal, (7) to wear only robes made of cast-off rags, (8) to possess only three robes, (9) to live in graveyards, (10) to live under a tree, (11) to live in the open air, and (12) to sit and not to lie down. Variations of this list exist.