ten similes ［十喩］ ( jū-yu): Also, ten analogies or ten comparisons. Ten comparisons set forth in the “Medicine King” (twenty-third) chapter of the Lotus Sutra to illustrate the superiority of the Lotus Sutra over all other sutras and the greatness of its beneficent power. They are as follows: (1) The simile of water; just as the ocean is foremost among all bodies of water, so the Lotus Sutra is the most profound of all the sutras. (2) The simile of mountains; just as Mount Sumeru is highest among all the mountains, so the Lotus Sutra holds the highest place among all the sutras. (3) The simile of the heavenly bodies; just as the moon is foremost among the stars and planets in the night sky, so the Lotus Sutra is likewise among sutras. (4) The simile of the sun; just as the sun can banish all darkness, so the Lotus Sutra can destroy all darkness and that which is not good. (5) The simile of a wheel-turning king; just as the wheel-turning king is foremost among kings, so the Lotus Sutra is the most honored among sutras. (6) The simile of the god Shakra; just as Shakra is king among the thirty-three heavenly gods, so the Lotus Sutra is king among all the sutras. (7) The simile of the great heavenly king Brahmā; just as Brahmā is the father of all living beings, so the Lotus Sutra is father to all sages and those who seek various levels of awakening. (8) The simile of voice-hearers at the four stages of enlightenment and cause-awakened ones; just as voice-hearers at the four stages of enlightenment (the stages of stream-winner, once-returner, non-returner, and arhat) and cause-awakened ones are foremost among all ordinary beings, so the Lotus Sutra is foremost among all the sutra teachings. This simile also states that one who can uphold the sutra is likewise foremost among all living beings. (9) The simile of bodhisattvas; just as bodhisattvas are foremost among all voice-hearers and cause-awakened ones, so the Lotus Sutra is foremost among all the sutra teachings. (10) The simile of the Buddha; just as the Buddha is king of the doctrines, so the Lotus Sutra is king of the sutras.