Treatises of Seng-chao, The ［肇論］ (Chin Chao-lun; Jō-ron): A collection of four treatises by the Chinese priest Seng-chao (384–414), a disciple of Kumārajīva. The first, titled “The Treatise on the Immutability of Essence,” states that the true aspect of all phenomena is unchanging. The second, “The Treatise on Non-substantiality,” states that all phenomena are without substance because they arise through a combination of causes and conditions. The third, “The Treatise on Incomprehensible Wisdom,” states that wisdom ( prajnā) is beyond ordinary people’s understanding. The fourth, “The Treatise on the Inexpressible State of Nirvana,” states that nirvana, or enlightenment, is indescribable, and that it neither appears nor disappears.