Tz’u-en ［慈恩］ (632–682) (PY Cien; Jion): Also known as K’uei-chi. The founder of the Dharma Characteristics (Fa-hsiang) school in China. Because he lived at Tz’u-en-ssu temple, he was given the title Great Teacher Tz’u-en. Born in Ch’ang-an, he became a student of Hsüan-tsang in 648 and later one of his most outstanding disciples. Tz’u-en collaborated with Hsüan-tsang in translating Buddhist texts, including The Treatise on the Establishment of the Consciousness-Only Doctrine. Based on the Consciousness-Only doctrine that Hsüan-tsang had brought from India, Tz’u-en established the Dharma Characteristics school. His works include The Commentary on “The Treatise on the Establishment of the Consciousness-Only Doctrine,” Praising the Profundity of the Lotus Sutra, The Forest of Meanings in the Mahayana Garden of the Law, and commentaries on the Consciousness-Only doctrine.