Treatise on the Lamp of Wisdom, The ［般若灯論・般若灯論釈］ ( Prajnā-pradīpa; Chin Pan-jo-teng-lun or Pan-jo-teng-lun-shih; Hannya-tōron or Hannya-tōron-shaku): A commentary on Nāgārjuna’s Verses on the Middle Way ( Madhyamaka-kārikā) by Bhāvaviveka (c. 490–570), a scholar of the Mādhyamika, or Middle Way, school. The Sanskrit original is no longer extant, but Chinese and Tibetan translations exist. Prabhākaramitra translated the work into Chinese in the early seventh century. In it, Bhāvaviveka set forth his own method of demonstrating the truth of non-substantiality and criticized the method employed by his contemporary Mādhyamika scholar Buddhapālita. As a result, the Mādhyamika school was divided into two—the Svātantrika school, headed by Bhāvaviveka, and the Prāsangika school, led by Buddhapālita. Bhāvaviveka applied Dignāga’s system of Buddhist logic to demonstrate the truth of non-substantiality, that all things are without substance. In contrast, Buddhapālita, rather than employing a formal system of logic, used the approach of pointing out contradictions in an opponent’s arguments.