ten stages of devotion ［十廻向］ ( jū-ekō): The ten stages from the thirty-first through the fortieth of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice according to the Jeweled Necklace Sutra. Preceding the ten stages of devotion are the ten stages of faith, the ten stages of security, and the ten stages of practice. In the ten stages of devotion, one directs one’s blessings toward other people. Described in the Jeweled Necklace Sutra and the Flower Garland Sutra, they are as follows: (1) The stage of saving all people and freeing oneself from the characteristics of a common mortal. In this stage, while practicing the six pāramitās among the beings of the six paths, one makes efforts to save all of them and at the same time liberates oneself from the characteristics of a common mortal. (2) The stage of indestructibility, in which, with indestructible faith in the three treasures of Buddhism, one penetrates the true nature of all phenomena, realizing their non-substantiality. (3) The stage of impartial devotion to all Buddhas, in which one practices, in successive lifetimes, under all the Buddhas of the three existences. In this stage, one increases all kinds of good roots and transfers their benefit to all beings impartially. (4) The stage of transferring one’s benefits to all lands. In this stage, one transfers one’s benefits to the Buddhas in all lands, serving and making offerings to them and to all other beings. (5) The stage of obtaining limitless blessings, in which one directs all one’s good fortune to the practice of Buddhism, thereby obtaining limitless good fortune and benefit. (6) The stage of impartial benefit, in which one benefits all beings equally. (7) The stage of observing the nature of all people, in which one perceives the coexistence of good and evil inherent in people’s lives. (8) The stage of realizing the true aspect of all phenomena. In this stage, one transfers the benefits one obtains through this realization to others. (9) The stage of freedom from all attachments. Here, one perceives all phenomena from the standpoints of both difference and equality and frees oneself from all attachments, thereafter leading others to emancipation. (10) The stage of perceiving all phenomena with infinite wisdom. At this level, one regards all phenomena as manifestations of the Middle Way and, while performing a variety of meritorious acts, uses the resultant benefits for the sake of others.