thirteen schools of China ［中国十三宗］ ( Chūgoku-jūsan-shū): The major Buddhist schools that are said to have flourished in China. This enumeration is found in A History of the Transmission and Propagation of Buddhism in Three Countries written in 1311 by Gyōnen, a priest of the Japanese Flower Garland (Kegon) school. The “three countries” are India, China, and Japan. In this work, Gyōnen mentions thirteen schools that existed in China from the fifth through the ninth century. The thirteen schools are the Abhidharma (Chin P’i-t’an ), Establishment of Truth (Ch’eng-shih), Precepts (Lü), Three Treatises (San-lun), Nirvana (Nieh-p’an), Treatise on the Ten Stages Sutra (Ti-lun), Pure Land (Ching-t’u), Zen (Ch’an), Summary of the Mahayana (She-lun), T’ien-t’ai, Flower Garland (Hua-yen), Dharma Characteristics (Fa-hsiang), and True Word (Chen-yen) schools.