three-time purification of the lands ［三変土田］ ( sampen-doden): Shakyamuni Buddha’s act of three times purifying countless lands in preparation for the Ceremony in the Air, described in the “Treasure Tower” (eleventh) chapter of the Lotus Sutra. To make room for the Buddhas who are his emanations and who are about to assemble from throughout the ten directions, Shakyamuni purifies three groups of lands, one at a time. First he purifies the sahā world where the assembly is taking place, then he purifies “two hundred ten thousand million nayutas of lands in each of the eight directions,” and finally he purifies yet another “two hundred ten thousand million nayutas of lands in each of the eight directions” in the same manner. After the emanation Buddhas have assembled from their own lands throughout the universe, Shakyamuni opens the treasure tower of the Buddha Many Treasures, who invites him to share his seat therein. With this, the Ceremony in the Air begins. See also “Emergence of the Treasure Tower” chapter.