ten stages of practice ［十行］ ( jū-gyō): The ten stages from the twenty-first through the thirtieth of the fifty-two stages of bodhisattva practice, according to the Jeweled Necklace Sutra. These ten stages follow the ten stages of faith and ten stages of security. In the ten stages of faith and ten stages of security one aims at personal development. In the ten stages of practice, one devotes oneself to altruistic deeds. The sutra lists them as follows: (1) The stage of joyful service, in which one awakens to the non-substantiality of all things and phenomena, and causes others to rejoice by offering them all one’s possessions. (2) The stage of beneficial practice, in which one always instructs and benefits others. (3) The stage of never offending, in which one engages in the practice of forbearance and frees oneself from anger, not offending others. It is also called the practice of never resenting. (4) The stage of limitless assiduousness, in which one continues earnest practice in order to lead others to enlightenment, whatever the hardships involved. (5) The stage of nonconfusion, in which one is not hindered by illusions or ignorance. (6) The stage of appearance in the Buddha land, in which one is always born in a Buddha land. (7) The stage of non-attachment, in which one perceives all things and phenomena as non-substantial and frees oneself from attachment to them. (8) The stage of attaining the difficult, in which one perfects the practice for cultivating virtues, which is difficult to accomplish. It is also called the stage of praising, in which one praises and promotes the pāramitās, or bodhisattva practices for perfection, among the people. (9) The stage of being a model in the preaching of the Law, in which one’s practice of preaching and protecting the Law becomes a model for all others. (10) The stage of realizing the truth, in which one is awakened to the truth of the Middle Way.