Tao-ch’o ［道綽］ (562–645) (PY Daochuo; Dōshaku): The second of the five patriarchs of the Pure Land school in China. Originally a teacher of the Nirvana Sutra, he was deeply moved by T’an-luan’s epitaph on a monument at Hsüan-chung-ssu temple and took faith in the Pure Land teachings. Thereafter he is said to have lectured on the Meditation on the Buddha Infinite Life Sutra two hundred times and taught the practice of calling upon the name of Amida Buddha. He classified the Buddhist teachings into two categories: Pure Land teachings and Sacred Way teachings. He asserted that the Sacred Way teachings, which expound the achievement of enlightenment through one’s own power, are too difficult for ordinary people of the latter age, and that only the Pure Land teachings, which expound rebirth in Amida Buddha’s Pure Land solely by reliance on Amida’s power, can offer salvation. He wrote The Collected Essays on the World of Peace and Delight. Shan-tao was his disciple.