Dignāga ［陳那］ (n.d.) (; Jinna): An Indian scholar of the Consciousness-Only school who lived from the fifth through the sixth century. Also a scholar of Buddhist logic. Born to a Brahman family in southern India, he studied both Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism. He further developed the ideas of Vasubandhu and established a branch of the Consciousness-Only school that regarded the images stored in the ālaya-consciousness as real rather than non-substantial. This teaching was inherited by Asvabhāva, Dharmapāla, Shīlabhadra, and Hsüan-tsang. Hsüan-tsang laid the foundation for the Dharma Characteristics (Fa-hsiang) school in China. Dignāga also contributed to the development of Buddhist logic, advancing a new form of deductive reasoning. His works include The Treatise on the Objects of Cognition, The Treatise on Systems of Cognition, and The Treatise on the Correct Principles of Logic.